How did New York benefit from the civil War?and why? How has globalization?contributed to a resurgence in political populism and economic nationalism?? 3. ? Map 22.3 Hunger is a glob
The discussion for this week is on the video clip on New York during Reconstruction. The prompt for this weeks discussion is:
- How did New York benefit from the civil War and why?
As with many questions there is not just one right answer, so don't feel you have to look for one.
Requirements for this assignment:
- Your post should be about 1 paragraph long and is due on Friday by midnight. (14 points)
2. How has globalization contributed to a resurgence in political populism and economic nationalism?
Map 22.3 Hunger is a global problem: Undernourishment by country — evaluation
According to this map, in which regions is undernourishment very high?
Comparing this map with Map 22.4, identify at least twelve countries where undernourishment is very high and per capita income is low. What other characteristics do these regions share?
Twenty-First-Century Global Challenges
Copyright © 2021, W. W. Norton & Company
The global “war on terror” achieves successes and failures in its fight against fundamentalist terrorists.
The benefits of a globally integrated economy are unequally distributed, creating substantial tensions within and across societies.
Mounting geopolitical and economic uncertainties lead to a rise in populist politics and economic nationalism, polarizing many countries politically. Heightened political polarization helped bring expanding state violence, racial justice demonstrations, and LGBTQ rights into focus.
Twenty-first-century globalization contributes to an increasing incidence and prevalence of pandemics.
Economic development and human consumption cause climate change, with substantial negative effects on biodiversity, water quality, and food production.
What is modern globalization? How is it different from earlier forms of global integration?
What are some of the global challenges we face in the twenty-first century?
In what ways has climate change affected the world, and what can be done to lessen or reverse the impact of climate change?
Who are the beneficiaries of modern globalization? Who has not benefited? Why is this?
How has globalization contributed to a resurgence in political populism and economic nationalism?
September 11, 2001
Al-Qaeda militants crashed hijacked airplanes into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon
United States responded with invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan
Crisis of 2008
Rise of right-wing populists
SARS, Ebola, COVID-19
The end of the Cold War brought the ideological conflicts of the twentieth century to a close. But new conflicts quickly emerged in the twenty-first century.
The September 11, 2001 attacks highlighted the tensions emerging at the turn of the millennium. Militants from a little-known Islamic fundamentalist organization called al-Qaeda hijacked commercial airliners and crashed them into the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, killing more than 3,000 people. The United States mounted an aggressive military response by invading Afghanistan, which had provided a safe-haven for al-Qaeda and its leader, Osama bin Laden. Then, the United States invaded Iraq, which it incorrectly blamed for engineering the attacks.
In addition to new wars, the first decade of the twenty-first century saw economic turmoil. An economic crisis in 2008 highlighted sharpening global inequalities, as some groups suffered disproportionately while others were spared. Anger and resentment born from the economic crisis contributed to the rise of right-wing populist parties. Donald Trump, elected U.S. president in 2016, was one of many world leaders who criticized “globalists” for betraying national economies and encouraging immigration.
On top of this, the closely integrated world was more vulnerable than ever. Outbreaks of SARS and Ebola heralded the COVID-19 outbreak of 2020, the worst pandemic since the 1918 flu.
As these forces fractured the international community, challenges requiring global cooperation only intensified.
World responded to 9/11 with revulsion
Militants claimed that it was a response to U.S. imperialist policies in the Middle East
President George W. Bush
Pushed for domestic security measures
Declared “global war on terror”
Invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq
Successful offensive, but rebuilding proved difficult
Osama bin Laden killed in 2011
American image suffered internationally
Barack Obama elected in 2008
War on Terror
Initially, the world responded to the 9/11 attacks with revulsion. Al-Qaeda claimed that the attacks were retaliation for U.S. imperialist policies in the Middle East.
President George W. Bush gained broad public support by pushing for domestic security measures and for a tough military response to the attacks. Declaring a “global war on terror,” Bush ordered the invasion of Afghanistan to capture bin Laden and destroy al-Qaeda. Soon after, Bush falsely accused Saddam Hussein, the Iraqi authoritarian leader, of helping organize the attacks and possessing weapons of mass destruction. In 2003, the United States invaded Iraq as well. Both offensives initially went well, but restoring order and rebuilding two countries thrown into political chaos proved difficult.
As time passed, neither weapons of mass destruction nor clear links between Hussein and al-Qaeda were discovered. Many U.S. citizens began to question the wisdom of the war as troop losses mounted in the face of a protracted insurgency. The situation in Afghanistan also gradually worsened. Local warlords took power from the weak U.S.-backed government in Kabul. Meanwhile, the Taliban recovered in neighboring Pakistan. Although Osama bin Laden was finally killed in 2011, the American image had suffered internationally.
The Bush administration relied on coercive interrogation techniques, torture, inhumane treatment of prisoners, and indefinite detention. Over time, this cost the administration both domestic and international support.
This erosion of support helped Barack Obama win the presidency in 2008. Over the next few years, Obama ended the occupation of Iraq, shifting focus to Afghanistan.
2007–2008 economic crisis
Growing risk and indebtedness ignored
Lehman Brothers allowed to collapse
U.S. unemployment reached 10 percent
Government intervention mitigated damage
European Union reluctant to bail out troubled countries
Greece, Italy, and Hungary see rising unemployment
U.S. and China spending and lending propped up global economy
Crisis and Inequality in the Global Economy (1 of 2)
As the new military conflicts deepened, the world was beset by the worst economic crisis since the 1930s. The crisis began in the financial sector. Investors made increasingly risky investments, especially in the housing market. In the United States, risk and indebtedness climbed, but the government did nothing. Alan Greenspan, the chairman of the Federal Reserve at the time, was a proponent of free markets. This led him to believe that the market would sort out the problems by itself.
But this did not happen. Instead, banks became increasingly indebted. In 2008, two leading investment firms—Bear Sterns and Lehman Brothers—collapsed. Although the government bailed out Bear Stearns, Lehman Brothers was left to crumble. This sent shockwaves throughout the global financial system, launching a global economic recession called the Great Recession.
The economic downturn was severe. Unemployment in the United States reached 10 percent. But it was not as severe as the Great Depression. This was partly due to aggressive government measures to mitigate the damage. The U.S. government protected big banks, provided easy credit, and encouraged international trade and cooperation. The bailouts of big banks appear to have rescued the economy from further damage. But this came at a political cost. Many Americans resented the assistance offered to the banks who had caused the crisis.
The European Union was less enthusiastic about bailouts. This meant that the European economy recovered slowly. Heavily indebted countries like Greece, Italy, and Hungary saw employment rates soar.
In China, the government encouraged state firms to continue spending and borrowing. With the United States doing the same, both of these large economies helped prop up the global economy.
Free market ideology
Rise of economists to positions of political power
Debates over government intervention
Growing prosperity and global middle class emerges, but there is anger over deepening inequality
Occupy Wall Street
Crisis and Inequality in the Global Economy (2 of 2)
The roots of the crisis lay in the rise of economists who believed in free market ideology to positions of political power. Debates over the extent of government intervention in the economy had carried on for decades. During the Great Depression, Franklin Roosevelt had relied on the ideas of John Maynard Keynes, who believed that governments needed to use all tools available to prevent economic crises.
But after World War II, the belief that markets will naturally sort out problems gained credence. At the same time, economists saw their image improve. For much of the twentieth century, economists were not highly respected by policymakers. But in the postwar period, they began to have a stronger voice in national economic affairs. In the 1980s, Ronald Reagan’s administration pursued free market policies under the direction of Alan Greenspan.
Free market policies stimulated global trade and raised standards of living around the world. But they also led to deepening inequalities. While some countries, like China and India, saw an expanding middle class, in the United States the middle class shrunk. As U.S. manufacturing jobs were increasingly exported overseas, wealth became concentrated in an ever-smaller number of hands. The rising corporate elite used their wealth to influence politics, especially after the Supreme Court allowed corporations to make unlimited political contributions.
As inequality rose, popular resentment intensified. In 2011, this resentment coalesced into a protest movement called Occupy Wall Street, which quickly spread around the world.
Climate change one of the most pressing issues for the new millennium
Leaders acknowledge that humans are contributing to/causing global warming
Emissions of greenhouse gases
2015: United Nations Framework on Climate Change
Agreement to limit emission of greenhouse gases
United States withdrew, other countries ignored provisions
In addition to economic crisis, the twenty-first century saw the emergence of climate change as a pressing issue. Although scientists had been warning of increasing global temperatures for decades, by the early twenty-first century the evidence was undeniable. A broad, international scientific consensus developed that humans were directly responsible for major reductions in biodiversity. Agriculture, deforestation, and increasing reliance on fossil fuels all contributed the climate crisis.
Although climate change demands international cooperation, this has proved challenging. Countries disagreed over who should shoulder the burden. However, in 2015, the international community appeared to reach a breakthrough with Paris Agreement, which set a goal of achieving a less than 1.5 percent increase in global temperature. The agreement was broadly signed and ratified.
However, Donald Trump, elected to the American presidency in 2016, withdrew the United States from the agreement. Other countries remained signatories but ignored the agreement’s provisions. At the same time, smaller countries made important strides in shifting to sustainable energy sources.
Began in Wuhan, China
Spread around the world within months
Brought global economy to a halt
Migrant workers especially hard-hit
Adding to years of chaos in the second decade of the twenty-first century, a major pandemic struck the world in late 2019. COVID-19 originated in Wuhan, China. Although the causes remain unclear, China’s expanding food production system had long carried the risk of forming new viruses. By March 2020, the WHO declared the new disease had become a pandemic.
Although COVID-19 was one of many disastrous pandemics in world history, it brought the global economy to halt in an unprecedented way. This reflects how closely intertwined the world had become. The effects of the virus varied widely. Some countries managed to respond quickly and effectively. Others, like the United States, Great Britain, and Brazil, lagged in their response and suffered immense consequences.
The economic effects were far reaching. U.S. unemployment hit 15 percent, economies shrank, oil exporters reeled. Migrant workers around the world were especially hard-hit. Many were trapped by lockdowns or expelled by host countries, forced to return home with no wages.
In addition to widespread suffering, there were also displays of solidarity and international cooperation.
The United States
The Obama administration experienced a conservative backlash
Occupy Wall Street movement highlighted the nation’s growing inequality
2016 election: Donald Trump becomes president; his victory reflected the rising populist and nationalist tide against globalization
A changing western Europe
Divisions emerge over the fate of NATO and the European Union
Britain votes to leave the European Union
Euro causes damage, especially in Greece
Rise of right-wing populism
The United States, the European Union, and Japan
In the United States, the Obama administration’s attempts at reform met staunch resistance from Republicans. In 2009, a conservative backlash was already forming. A movement called the Tea Party, which championed small government and free market ideology galvanized the Republican base. The Democratic Party lost control of the House of Representatives in 2010.
Meanwhile, the Occupy Wall Street movement motivated activism on the political left. This restored the favor of Obama and the Democratic Party, but not for long.
In 2016, Donald Trump was elected president in a stunning upset victory. Trump won popularity by repudiating globalization. He pointed to immigration, crime, international trade, and international alliances as the sources of America’s problems. In office, his administration attempted to unravel the fabric of the post-1945 world order.
In Europe, economic crises led to tensions within the European Union. Divisions over economic policy and immigration came to the fore after the 2008 economic slump. In 2016, Britain voted by referendum to leave the European Union, sparking further chaos and uncertainty. Meanwhile, EU monetary policies hurt southern European economies like Greece, which grappled with high unemployment and falling standards of living.
Immigration was also a major source of division. This intensified as waves of migrants from Africa and the Middle East flowed into Europe. Fleeing war and political instability, refugees made dangerous journeys over mountains and across the Mediterranean. Thousands died. European countries responded differently to this humanitarian crisis. Germany admitted 1 million refugees, while other countries sought to exclude newcomers.
All of these factors combined to encourage the rise of right-wing, populist leaders with strong anti-immigration, anti-EU messages.
Two threats to Europe’s integration, future peace, and prosperity are the interlocking issues of aging and immigration
European women having fewer children and population is aging
To achieve a balance between workers and pensioners, Europe needs to attract around 15 million immigrants annually
Sustainable economic growth has proven elusive
Immigrants often live in impoverished conditions and face xenophobia, especially against Muslims
Islam is the fastest-growing religion in Europe
Demographic Issues in Western Countries (1 of 2)
Aging populations and immigration present Europe, the United States, and Japan with serious challenges. Falling birthrates in Europe mean fewer workers to support expanding pension programs. Europe needs to attract 15 million workers annually to maintain balance, but so far has failed to do so. Despite the clear economic need for immigrants, many Europeans see immigration as a threat. Millions of Muslim immigrants have settled in Europe, but often live in poverty. Those with guest-worker status are also excluded from the full benefits of citizenship. Europeans who equate Europe with Christendom see the rapid growth of Islam as a cultural threat.
United States also faces imbalance of workers: retirees
Concern over Social Security system’s sustainability
New immigrants shift ethnic composition of nation
Donald Trump made control of immigration central to his campaign for presidency
Japan: deepening labor shortages led to increased dependence on immigrant workers
Demographic Issues in Western Countries (2 of 2)
The United States faces similar problems. Falling birthrates and increased life expectancy have strained its Social Security system. Immigrants from Asia and Latin America offer a potential economic solution. However, like in Europe, there is stiff resistance to immigration. Anti-immigrant sentiment helped propel Donald Trump to power.
Japan also confronts a similar dilemma. Japan has been especially resistant to welcoming foreign workers. In the 1960s, the government preferred to balance the labor shortage with automation and with workers of Japanese descent from abroad. However, beginning in the 1980s, Japan began admitting larger numbers of foreign workers from Southeast Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America.
Europe: high unemployment has caused sharp backlash
Far-right groups rally against immigration
In recent years, anti-immigrant sentiments and especially anti-Muslim feelings have grown
Murder of Dutch filmmaker and a French newspaper's anti-Islamic cartoons started discussions on nations' tolerance of diversity as well as the assimilation (and assimilability) of Muslims
Frequent terrorist attacks
Trump administration imposes restrictions on immigration from Muslim countries and seeks to end DACA policy
Anti-Immigrant Sentiments in Western Countries
Anti-immigrant sentiment has reshaped the political landscapes of many western countries. In Europe, high unemployment has led to a backlash against immigrants. This has fueled the rise of far-right parties, which have gained seats in numerous European parliaments.
Immigration has become intertwined with the issue of terrorism and the assimilability of Muslims in Europe. The murder of a Dutch filmmaker, terrorist attacks in Spain and London, and the murder of staff members at a French newspaper have sharpened the debate. In France, 2005 riots in poor neighborhoods led to deportations and proposals to strip people of citizenship.
In the United States, the Trump administration also pursued an anti-immigration agenda. The administration separated children from their families at the U.S. border, sought to end the DACA policy, and banned immigration from several majority-Muslim countries.
Map 22.1 | Population Growth, 2017
Map 22.1 | Population Growth, 2016
The demographic patterns observed early in the twenty-first century pose major problems for the industrialized societies of western Europe, North America, and Japan. As life expectancy increases and population growth slows, these regions’ economies face labor shortages that have fueled immigration.
• According to this map and Map 22.2, which regions of the world are prime candidates for sending migrants to the industrialized world?
• What cultural and political dilemmas does this phenomenon create?
• Which states within the industrialized world do you think have created the best environment for immigrant residents?
Map 22.2 | Life Expectancies in Global Perspective, 2018
Map 22.2 | Life Expectancies in Global Perspective, 2018
Increased attention to public health, medicine, nutrition, and education since the early nineteenth century has contributed to prolonging life expectancy around the world, as have the many scientific breakthroughs and technological advancements of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
• According to Map 22.1 and this map, which regions experienced population increases but low life expectancies? Population decreases and high life expectancies? Explain.
• Which countries do not match the life expectancy trends of their geographical regions? Why?
• Do you note any correlations between a region’s life expectancy and its physical environment? Why or why not?
In Europe, Japan, and North America, “outsourcing,” or relocating manufacturing to places where cheap labor is already available, fuels anti-immigration sentiment
Economic globalization and political effects
Technological advances, particularly in computers and communication, allow businesses to be based anywhere in the world
Workers do not have to leave India and China for employment in industrialized countries, as corporations take their operations there
Russia, China, and India had healthy economic growth in the twenty-first century
Russia’s economy is prospering from oil revenues
Political system becoming more restrictive
Russia, China, and India
Outsourcing has fueled political tensions in Europe, Japan, and North America. As it became cheaper to relocate manufacturing jobs overseas, many traditional manufacturing centers faced rising unemployment.
Technological advances have made it easier for business to operate in multiple locations all over the globe. China, India, and Russia are key destinations for corporations. As a result, these three economies have grown substantially. Recently, China has evolved from a trading partner to a trading competitor.
Russia’s economy has prospered from oil revenues. However, its political system has become increasingly closed. President Vladimir Putin led the consolidation of the central Russian state after the chaos of the Yeltsin years. In the process, he repossessed two major television stations and key energy companies. The result was an authoritarian state dominated by the executive. Under Putin, Russia also engaged in expansionism. In 2014, it annexed Crimea. At the same time, the government has sought to tamp down LGBTQ activism.
Although Donald Trump has expressed admiration for Putin, American policies toward Russia have remained hostile.
Like Russia, China encouraged market economic reforms while quashing the possibilities for political liberalization
China’s economy is growing at an annual average of 9 percent
Chinese consumer goods dominate world markets
China’s economy second largest in the world and by midcentury is projected to be the largest
Growing and alarming gap between rich and poor: 1 percent of Chinese households controlled one-third of the country’s assets; poorest 25 percent owned 1 percent of wealth
Growing concerns about China’s environmental impact as 40 percent more coal is consumed than in the United States, and Chinese urban dwellers suffer from the worst smog and air quality
China: Market Reforms and Shifting Foreign Policy
China has also seen massive economic growth along with tightening political controls. For decades, China has seen spectacular GDP growth as its manufactured goods have flooded world markets. Currently it is the second largest economy in the world. Some projections suggest that it will become the largest by midcentury.
However, along with growth have come sharpening inequalities. Some estimate that 1 percent of Chinese households control one-third of the country’s wealth, while the poorest 25 percent own 1 percent of wealth. At the same time, China’s rapid development has raised concerns about environmental impacts. Increasing standards of living have raised energy usage, much of which still comes from coal. This has led to disastrous levels of air pollution in China’s cities.
Disenchantment with globalization led to questioning of long-standing trade relationships
Withdrawal from TPP
Renegotiation of NAFTA
Tensions with China
Accusations of currency manipulation, industrial espionage
Trump administration initiates a trade war
Tit-for-tat tariff increases
Consumers likely to see rising costs
China’s Trade War with America
Disenchantment with globalization threatened long-standing trade relationships. As a presidential candidate, Donald Trump railed against trade agreements that he said disadvantaged American companies. Upon gaining office, he immediately withdrew from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). In 2018, he renegotiated NAFTA, although much of the original agreement remained intact.
Trump’s chief target was China. The United States had long maintained a growing trade imbalance with China. Trump increased tensions between the two countries by accusing China of manipulating its currency and engaging in industrial espionage. In 2018, Trump initiated a trade war by applying tariffs to $60 billion dollars of Chinese goods. This led to a spiraling tit for tat between the two countries. With disagreements yet to be resolved, consumers face rising costs.
1997: Britain cedes Hong Kong to People’s Republic of China
Agreement maintains that Hong Kong would retain capitalist system for fifty years
Chief executive to be elected by all citizens in 2017
China chipped away at the agreement
2017 protests of extradition law
2020 security law
Hong Kong Protests
China also faced challenges integrating Hong Kong. Although Britain had ceded Hong Kong to China in 1997, the agreement maintained that Hong Kong would retain a capitalist system for fifty years. At the same time, the agreement laid a blueprint for the transition to democratic institutions. By 2017, Hong Kong’s chief executive was supposed to be elected by popular vote.&
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