After the com-pany hired more shoppers, batch avail-ability fluctuated but is beginning to rebalance, the company says.) As we talked, Lévêque turned down a food- delivery offer for $3 bec
english question and need guidance to help me learn.
This prompt, in addition to the “Readers Write!” and “Interacting with Reading” and “Grammar for Source Incorporation” Pages, will serve as the guidelines for the remaining responses for this entire semester. Below, I have copied the highlights from the “Readers Write!” page for your convenience.
Be sure to mention the title of the work to which you are responding, the author, and the main thesis of the text, using correct English for the first sentence of your paper.
Respond with your ideas. What do you think?
Be sure, also, to avoid plagiarism. While you can summarize an idea from the author or borrow a quote, you must also make sure that you parenthetically and bibliographically cite the essay using MLA format.
The basic bibliographic formula for our responses’ essays will look like this:
Author Last, First Name. “Article Title.” Periodical Title, Date Month Year. Database, url.
When you finish reading the article, click on the citation icon on the right and scroll down to MLA 9th edition, and the bibliographic citation will be done for you–yahoo!
Any idea, thought, word, or phrase from the original source must be cited.
Reading responses need to be 250 words in length. They should be titled and follow MLA conventions.
Remember, too that I gave the full version of this prompt on the “Readers Write!” Page.
To begin this assignment, compose your Response 6 by addressing the following requirements:
Read of the assigned essay Semuels
In the opening sentences, give the author’s full name and “Essay Title” in a complete sentence.
Give your reactions, opinions, and thoughts about the material.
You need not mention the author again unless you quote or summarize the material.
If you give the author’s name again, use last name only.
If you use the author’s words (quote) or ideas (summary), cite both in text and bibliographically.
Be sure to offer a title of your own creation.
***Remember that Responses 4, 5, & 6 are a unit; if you did Response 4, you need to do only Response 5 or Response 6–you choose. If you skipped Response 4, you must do Responses 5 & 6.***
Write your answer in a short paragraph (250+ words).
You may submit/upload this assignment as a .doc, .docx, or .pdf file.
When you have composed your Response, name and save your document, then upload the file by selecting “Submit Assignment.”
Please see the grading rubric for this assignment below. If accessing this course by using the Canvas Student App, you will not see the icon. Instead, please use the menu to locate the rubric.
The associated rubric will be used to provide feedback–please be sure to review the rubric before starting and before submitting your assignment.
Criteria Ratings Pts
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeResponse
8 to >4.0 pts
The response depicts good interaction and understanding of the essay.
4 to >0.0 pts
The response is predominantly summary; the interaction and understanding of the essay is not illustrated.
The response was not submitted.
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeCitations
6 to >3.0 pts
The sources are cited both parenthetically and bibliographically.
3 to >0.0 pts
The sources are cited only parenthetically or bibliographically.
The sources are not cited.
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeSpecificationsResponse is titled, includes author name and essay title, and meets 250 word count
3 to >2.0 pts
All specifications were met.
2 to >0.0 pts
Some, but not all, specifications were met.
The specifications were not met.
This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeWriting ConventionsGrammar, punctuation, style
3 to >2.0 pts
The writing is articulate and relatively free of errors.
2 to >0.0 pts
The writing has some errors, but they do not impact comprehension.
The writing is filled with errors to the point of being not comprehensible.
Total Points: 20
Requirements: 1 p
12 TIME June 1?8, 2020tips have nearly doubled. After the com-pany hired more shoppers, batch avail-ability fluctuated but is beginning to rebalance, the company says.) As we talked, Lévêque turned down a food- delivery offer for $3 because it wasnt worth the gas shed use to do the job. As more workers rush to apps, theyre encountering people trying to make money off their situation. Even before the pandemic, hustlers had been selling access to bots that grabbed jobs before humans could, and charging po-tential workers to use these bots, says Matthew Telles, a longtime Instacart shopper who has been outspoken about the platforms flaws. As the apps get more crowded, he says, people desper-ate for income cant resist the bots. Its an old-school racket, he says. Bots are also a problem on services like Amazon Flex, but Telles says Instacart in partic-ular has become a target. (Instacart says that using unauthorized third parties in an effort to secure more batches is not permitted and that anyone found to be doing so will be deactivated.)Delivery drivers like Lévêque, who lives in Redwood City, Calif., have one advantage?they are competing for jobs only with people from their own geo-graphic area. On sites like Fiverr and Up-work, where people sell services as di-verse as copywriting, digital marketing and voice acting, workers compete with others from around the world. Anyone with an Internet connection can vie for these gigs, and the worse the global econ-omy gets, the more people will use these sites to look for work. The World Bank estimates that COVID-19 will cause the first increase in global poverty since 1998.FOR YEARS, JENNELL LÉVÊQUE HAS BEEN GETTING UP EARLY and swiping through her phone in the hope that Amazon Flex would drop some delivery shifts and shed be quick enough to nab one. But since the COVID-19 pandemic, even with six apps open for various delivery platforms, Lévêque has gotten barely any jobs bringing packages, meals or groceries to cus-tomers. The problem is competition: the Facebook group she helps run for Instacart workers is deluged with requests from people suddenly wanting to shop for others.Before the pandemic, there were millions of people like Lévêque who could make a living, or at least earn decent pocket money, off gig work: driving people from the airport to their homes, delivering dinners, designing logos for strangers half a world away. But with the U.S. unemployment rate ap-proaching 15% and the International Monetary Fund predict-ing a 3% contraction in the global economy, people who have relied on gig work are seeing their earnings plummet as more people compete for jobs.Each week is getting worse and worse with every plat-form, says Lévêque, who is in her 40s and whose lament is borne out by company numbers. The platform Upwork, where people can sell skills like logo design and résumé writing, says it has seen a 50% increase in freelancer sign-ups since the pandemic began. Talkdesk, a startup that provides customer- service software, launched a gig- economy platform and got 10,000 new applications for gig work in two weeks. Instacart hired 300,000 additional workers in a month and said in late April it planned to add 250,000 more.THOUGH MORE PEOPLE are using many of these services, the surge of new workers has disrupted the law of supply and de-mand. With at least 36 million newly jobless people in America alone as of mid-May, there are too many gig workers to make the gig economy viable for many of them. This may be irreversible as companies adapt to the reality of a global recession. By keep-ing head counts low, theyll drive more desperate people into side hustles, lowering the prices that workers can command.The rates on DoorDash and Uber Eats are the lowest Ive ever seen, but theyre all bad right now, says Lévêque, whos watched the trend unfold in recent weeks. Apps like Amazon Flex, whose drivers use their personal vehicles to make deliv-eries for the company, release delivery jobs at random times, and they are snapped up within seconds. Lévêque says some Amazon Flex drivers now park and wait near the companys warehouses in hopes this will help them beat the competition.Apps like Instacart send offers, which let workers see how much a customer has ordered, the amount theyll get paid, and what the tip will be. On some apps, these offers are lower than ever, Lévêque says. (Instacart says its shoppers are earning 60% more per batch of orders they complete in part because 1. Shopping for dollars Instacart worker Matt Gillette juggles multiple gigs but says the pay is barely enough to keep a roof over his head 2. Driven to frustrationJerome Gage, a Lyft driver, has lost most of his business and struggled to access unemployment benefits 3. Supporting a family Instacart shopper Gerald Timothee walks miles a day to make deliveries and sends money he earns to his family in Haiti As the gig economy grows, its workers paychecks shrink By Alana SemuelsTheBrief Economy1GILLETTE: EVELYN HOCKSTEIN?THE WASHINGTON POST/GETTY IMAGES; GAGE: JESSICA PONS?THE NEW YORK TIMES/REDUX; TIMOTHEE: BRITTAINY NEWMAN?THE NEW YORK TIMES/REDUX
13Upwork has not tracked whether free-lancer pay rates have gone down, but Ozimek argues that Upworks border-less business model is good particularly for U.S. gig workers because it gives them the freedom to find employers anywhere, not just in their city or coun-try. This is where the U.S. has the ad-vantage, he says. The U.S. leads the world in skilled services, and our free-lancers do find work all over the world.WHAT WORRIES some workers is that this increased competition for less pay is going to become the new normal as businesses try to stay lean by spend-ing as little as possible. One survey found that as early as 2017, average hourly earnings on some platforms like Click-worker and Amazons Mechani-cal Turk were as low as $2 to $6.50 an hour. Twitter has said that going forward, many employees could work from home forever if they so desired. But once people are working from home, whats the incentive to keep them on as salaried em-ployees? Arguably, companies could save money and balance their budgets by hir-ing overseas marketers or coders willing to work for less money and no benefits. The global market for online labor has grown 70% in the past four years alone. Giant marketing companies like WPP and Omnicom have already talked about significant head-count reductions going forward. They could turn to online free-lancers once business starts up again.There are signs this transition is al-ready happening. Companies that are trying to grow online are hiring many gig workers on Fiverr, and Fiverr has seen an increase in demand for these employ-ees, the company said on its earnings call in May. Fiverr hit all-time daily rev-enue records four times in April, CEO Micha Kaufman said. Nichols, the mar-keter, says she has seen big advertising agencies that have laid off hundreds of people hiring gig workers for market-ing jobs on Upwork. Upwork said on its May earnings call that a multi national cyber security company used Upwork to find designers and developers, and a sports-marketing agency hired software developers and animators on the site for projects. Aside from a moral ob-ligation to treat workers well and pay them a living wage, theres nothing to prevent more compa-nies from jettisoning full-time employees and shifting to lower-paid gig workers.Theyd just be following what has been happening for decades in other fields. Just as manufac-turers shifted to overseas con-tractors to save money and as gig- economy apps drove down wages for taxi and delivery drivers, the pandemic has hastened the gig- ification of white collar jobs. The gig world might have been a crowded space before COVID-19, but the booming economy masked its workers struggles because many of them could find other jobs to supplement their income. Now, that extra work has dried up, and their des-peration is more evident than ever. When gig work is the only pie thats available to millions of people, sharing it means that some dont even get crumbs. ???It is a lot of supply but not a lot of demand.STEVEN LEE NOTAR,graphic designer in the gig economyPeople in creative fields are strug-gling more than coders and other tech freelancers to find work during this pandemic, according to the Oxford Internet Institute.Its a race to the bottom, honestly, says Melanie Nichols, a 40-year-old mar-keter who freelances for tech startups. With business slowing in the wake of the pandemic, Nichols created an Upwork account from England, where she was staying with family, to earn some extra money. Before the pandemic, she could charge clients $100 to $150 an hour. On Upwork, Nichols says, clients advertise jobs that require the same amount of work but pay $50 an hour or less. Nichols says shes applied for 20 jobs since March and landed one. It ended up being more work than she was pitched, so Nichols did 25 hours of labor for 10 hours of pay. Up-work seems to be such a good idea, she says, but Id be curious to find people who are actually making money from it.Steven Lee Notar, 24, is in the same situation. He worked as a graphic de-signer at a media agency in Germany until the company first reduced his hours and then laid him off. He started advertising on Fiverr for services like designing online ads, posters and busi-ness cards, but says he has to set his prices low to get any orders. A lot of people in my field have turned to the website, Notar says. It is a lot of sup-ply but not a lot of demand.Sites like Upwork and Fiverr say the demand is still there. Adam Ozimek, the chief economist at Upwork, says that a third of Fortune 500 companies now use the platform, and that client spending has been stable since the pandemic hit. 23
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