Cellular Electricity Define the following structures of a Neuron…
Define the following structures of a Neuron (the definitions of these terms are not necessarily found in the powerpoint notes. Therefore, use the internet.)
Body (of a neuron)
Draw a Neuron and label it with the structures/terms from Question #1.
Answer the following questions pertaining to Channels, Pumps, and Gradients.
Pumps such as a Na+/K+ Pump move substances AGAINST their gradients. Therefore they require ___________.
In terms of their mechanism of action, what is the difference between a Leak Channel and a Gated Channel?
What type of stimulus is needed to open a Chemically Gated (Ligand) Channel?
What type of stimulus is needed to open a Voltage-Gated Channel?
What is the difference between a Chemical (a.k.a. Concentration) Gradient versus an Electrical Gradient?
The Chemical Gradient and Electrical Gradient of a particular ion are added together to produce a gradient called an ____________________ Gradient.
BIG CONCEPT! Resting Membrane Potential (RMP): Answer the following questions pertaining to RMP.
When charged particles (i.e. ions/electrolytes) are separated across a cell membrane, an ELECTROCHEMICAL GRADIENT is created. The particles naturally want to move based on their concentration and charges. However, they cannot move across the cell membrane while the Channels are closed. Therefore, ______________ energy is created.
List the 3 requirements that must be met before Resting Membrane Potential (RMP) can take place:
The voltage of a cell membrane during Resting Potential (RMP) is _________ mV.
Sodium (Na+) ions are more concentrated (Outside/Inside) of the Cell.
Potassium (K+) ions are more concentrated (Outside/Inside) of the Cell.
Critical Thinking: The inside of a cell, particularly a neuron, has a negative charge with a voltage of approximately -70 mV during Resting Potential (RMP). However, the two main ions involved in Resting Potential are positively charged (Na+, K+). List two reasons why/how a negative voltage is established during RMP.
Answer the following questions about Na+/K+ Pumps:
Step 1: How many Na+ ions are pumped back out of the cell?
Step 2: Immediately after Na+ is pumped out, K+ ions are pumped back into the cell. How many K+ ions are pumped back into the cell?
How many molecules of ATP are needed to perform this cycle each time?
What is the role of Na+/K+ Pumps in our body, especially for our neurons and muscles?
BIG CONCEPT! Graded Potential: Answer the following questions pertaining to Graded potentials.
Graded potentials are also known as ___________ potentials because they do not travel very far from the site of stimulation.
In general, Graded potentials occur in which part of a neuron?
Step 1: To create a Graded Potential, a STIMULUS such as a neurotransmitter or a hormone must interact with and open ___________________ channels.
Step 2: Once these channels are open, Na+ ions are now able to (Enter/Exit) the cell.
Step 3: As Na+ moves according to its electrochemical gradient, the cell becomes slightly DEPOLARIZED. In other words the voltage becomes (Less/More) negative.
Graded Potentials are characterized as “Graded”, “Decremental” and “Reversible”. Define these 3 characteristics as they relate to Graded Potentials.
BIG CONCEPT! Action Potentials (AP): Answer the following questions pertaining to Action Potentials.
Before an Action Potential can occur, a Graded Potential must reach a voltage of approximately -60 to -55 mV. This voltage is known as _______________.
When an Action Potential is created, it spreads/propagates down which part of the neuron (hint: the longest part of the neuron that connects the body to the synaptic terminals).
When an Action Potential is created, it is considered “Nondecremental” and “Irreversible”. Define these characteristics as they are related to Action Potentials.
Define the following Action Potential terms:
BIG CONCEPT!! (and very likely an Essay Question): Describe the steps/process of an Action Potential. Please include the following: 1) The Channels involved and whether they are closed or open in each step; 2) How Na+ and K+ move in each step; 3) What is happening to the Voltage in each step.
What is the difference between the Absolute Refractory period and the Relative Refractory period?Muscular System part 1
List the 3 types of Muscle Tissue
List 4 functions of Skeletal Muscle
Put the following components of Skeletal muscle in order from largest to smallest:
Fascicle, Myofibril, Myofilament, Muscle Fiber, Muscle (Belly)
For the components of Skeletal muscle listed in the previous question, give a brief description of each (again, put them in order from largest to smallest).
Give a brief description/function for each of the following Connective tissues found in Skeletal muscle (Note: these connective tissues help divide and compartmentalize the various component of skeletal muscle):
What is a Tendon? How is it related to the connective tissues mentioned in the previous question?
Why are Nerves and Blood Vessels vital to skeletal muscle function?
BIG CONCEPT: Characteristics and components of Muscle Fibers (a.k.a. muscle cells). For each of the following structures/organelles: a) give a brief description; b) tell the function; c) tell the relative location within the muscle fiber.
Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR)
Triad of a muscle fiber
BIG CONCEPT: Answer the following questions concerning Sarcomeres: a) What is a sarcomere? b) Which component of a skeletal muscle contains sarcomeres? c) What kind of visual appearance do sarcomeres give skeletal muscle?
BIG CONCEPT (continued): For the following components/structures of a Sarcomere, answer the following: a) Define; b) Function; c) Structure/appearance.
BIG CONCEPT: Thin Filaments vs. Thick Filaments.
Which filament is called “Actin”?
Which filament is called “Myosin”
In Thin filaments, what is the function of Troponin and Tropomyosin?
In Thick filaments, what is the function of the “Head”?
Describe the Sliding Filament Theory. In your description, include as many structures as possible from this research sheet.
Answer the following questions concerning the Sliding Filament Theory and what happens to the structures of a sarcomere during contraction (Circle the correct answer):
During muscle contraction, the Z-lines move (towards/away from) each other.
During muscle contraction, the size of the H-zone gets (smaller/larger/stays same).
During muscle contraction, the size of the I-band gets (smaller/larger/stays same).
During muscle contraction, the size of the A-band gets (smaller/larger/stays same).
Challenge: During muscle contraction, (Myosin/Actin) pulls on (Myosin/Actin). This causes the (I-bands/A-bands) to move (towards/away from) the M-line
Muscular System part 2
BIG CONCEPT: Synapse- Define the following terms
Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ)
Motor End Plate
BIG CONCEPT: Excitation-Contraction Coupling- Describe the process of Excitation-Contraction Coupling. Begin with an Action Potential at the synaptic terminal and Finish with the release of Calcium/Troponin/Tropomyosin. (Use the back of this page if more space is needed)
BIG CONCEPT: Cross-Bridge Cycle- Describe the Cross-Bridge Cycle. Hint: Focus on details pertaining to the Actin, Myosin, and ATP/ADP.
List the factors that contribute to Muscle Relaxation.
What is Tension Production? List the 3 factors that affect Tension production in skeletal muscle.
Describe the Length-Tension Relationship?
For the following scenarios, tell whether tension production increases or decreases:
Shortened sarcomere/too much overlap in the sarcomere
Stretched sarcomere/too little overlap in the sarcomere
What is a Muscle Twitch? List the 3 phases of a Muscle Twitch.
Frequency of a Twitch: Muscle tension is directly affected by the Frequency (number) of twitches applied to the muscle. Describe the following terms in reference to Frequency of twitches applied to a muscle fiber:
Define: Motor Unit
Motor Recruitment (Intensity of a muscle stimulus)- Muscle tension is directly affected by the intensity of the nerve stimulus. Describe the process of motor unit Recruitment:
Muscular System part 3
Define the following types of Muscle Contraction. You MUST include what is happening to the Length of the muscle during each type of contraction:
BIG CONCEPT: Muscle Metabolism- Compare the 3 Energy producing pathways by describing the following for each: 1) Duration 2) Major molecules involved 3) How much ATP is produced 4) Byproducts produced 5) Is oxygen present?
Define the following Strength and Conditioning terms:
BIG CONCEPT: Types of Muscle Fibers- Compare Fast twitch vs. Slow twitch muscle fibers. Include the following for each: 1) Speed of contraction 2) Strength/tension of contraction 3) Duration of contraction 4) Size (diameter) 5) Types of exercise each fiber is utilized 6) Other characteristics i.e. more blood flow, mitochondria, glycogen, etc.
Fast twitch fibers
Slow twitch fibers
Anaerobic exercise vs. Aerobic exercise- For each type of exercise, please include the following details: 1) Description 2) Examples of activities performed 3) Duration 4) Type of muscle fiber utilized 5) Adaptations/benefits
BIG CONCEPT: 3 Types of Muscle Tissue- Complete the chart below.
Voluntary or Involuntary?
(yes or no)
Number of nuclei per cell
Locations (Where is it found in the human body?)
Other Important Information
List at least 2:
List at least 3:
During Resting Membrane Potential of a cell, Na+ is more concentrated __________ whereas K+ is more concentrated ____________.
During an Action potential, Na+ enters the cell and causes the membrane voltage to become less negative. This process is called______________.
At the beginning of Repolarization, ______ channels close and ______ channels open.
What is the name of the muscle fiber organelle that is continuous with the sarcolemma and transmits an action potential through the inside of a cell?
Place the units of skeletal muscle in order from largest to smallest:
Muscle fiber, Muscle fascicle, Myofibril, Muscle (belly), Myofilaments
(Troponin / Tropomyosin) binds Ca2+ which, in turn, causes (Troponin / Tropomyosin) to shift and expose the active sites on Actin.
In a sarcomere, the Z-lines move (towards the M line / away from the M line).
What is the difference between the A-band and the I-band in a sarcomere? (I need more information than just “dark vs. light”)
Name the neurotransmitter that creates an action potential on the Motor End Plate of a muscle fiber.
The gap between the synaptic terminal and the motor end plate is called ___
Collepals.com Plagiarism Free Papers
Are you looking for custom essay writing service or even dissertation writing services? Just request for our write my paper service, and we\'ll match you with the best essay writer in your subject! With an exceptional team of professional academic experts in a wide range of subjects, we can guarantee you an unrivaled quality of custom-written papers.
Why Hire Collepals.com writers to do your paper?
Quality- We are experienced and have access to ample research materials.
We write plagiarism Free Content
Confidential- We never share or sell your personal information to third parties.
Support-Chat with us today! We are always waiting to answer all your questions.