After reading chapters Ch: 5 & 6 of different theories of leadership in your book, what differences in leadership approach you have noticed between top executives (CEO, President, Vice-president) and first level supervisors ( manager, middle manager etc).
Leadership seventh edition
To Laurel, Lisa, Madison, Scott, and Kallie
Leadership Theory and practice • seventh edition
Peter g.Northouse Western Michigan University
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Copyright 2016 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Northouse, Peter Guy.
Leadershop : theory and practice/Peter Northouse, Western Michigan University.—Seventh Edition.
pages cm Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4833-1753-3 (pbk. : alk. paper)
1. Leadership. 2. Leadership—Case studies. I. Title.
HM1261.N67 2015 303.3′4—dc23 2014044695 This book is printed on acid-free paper.
15 16 17 18 19 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
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1. Introduction 1 2. Trait Approach 19 3. Skills Approach 43 4. Behavioral Approach 71 5. Situational Approach 93 6. Path–Goal Theory 115 7. Leader–Member Exchange Theory 137 8. Transformational Leadership 161 9. Authentic Leadership 195 10. Servant Leadership 225 11. Adaptive Leadership 257 12. Psychodynamic Approach 295 13. Leadership Ethics 329 14. Team Leadership 363 15. Gender and Leadership 397 16. Culture and Leadership 427
Author Index 467 Subject index 477 About the Author 491 About the Contributors 493
1. Introduction 1 Leadership Defined 2
Ways of Conceptualizing Leadership 5 Definition and Components 6
Leadership Described 7 Trait Versus Process Leadership 7 Assigned Versus Emergent Leadership 8 Leadership and Power 10 Leadership and Coercion 12 Leadership and Management 13
Plan of the Book 15 Summary 16 References 17
2. Trait Approach 19 Description 19
Intelligence 23 Self-Confidence 24 Determination 24 Integrity 25 Sociability 26 Five-Factor Personality Model and Leadership 26 Emotional Intelligence 27
How Does the Trait Approach Work? 29 Strengths 30 Criticisms 30
Application 32 Case Studies 32
Case 2.1 Choosing a New Director of Research 33 Case 2.2 A Remarkable Turnaround 34 Case 2.3 Recruiting for the Bank 36
Leadership Instrument 37 Leadership Trait Questionnaire (LTQ) 38
Summary 40 References 41
3. Skills Approach 43 Description 43
Three-Skill Approach 44 Technical Skill 44 Human Skill 44 Conceptual Skill 45 Summary of the Three-Skill Approach 46
Skills Model 47 Competencies 48 Individual Attributes 52 Leadership Outcomes 53 Career Experiences 54 Environmental Influences 55 Summary of the Skills Model 56
How Does the Skills Approach Work? 56 Strengths 57 Criticisms 58 Application 59 Case Studies 60
Case 3.1 A Strained Research Team 60 Case 3.2 A Shift for Lieutenant Colonel Adams 62 Case 3.3 Andy’s Recipe 64
Leadership Instrument 66 Skills Inventory 67
Summary 69 References 70
4. Behavioral Approach 71 Description 71
The Ohio State Studies 72 The University of Michigan Studies 73 Blake and Mouton’s Managerial (Leadership) Grid 74
Authority–Compliance (9,1) 75
Country-Club Management (1,9) 75 Impoverished Management (1,1) 75 Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5) 76 Team Management (9,9) 77
Paternalism/Maternalism 77 Opportunism 77
How Does the Behavioral Approach Work? 78 Strengths 80 Criticisms 81 Application 81 Case Studies 82
Case 4.1 A Drill Sergeant at First 83 Case 4.2 Eating Lunch Standing Up 84 Case 4.3 We Are Family 85
Leadership Instrument 87 Leadership Behavior Questionnaire 88
Summary 90 References 91
5. Situational Approach 93 Description 93
Leadership Styles 94 Development Levels 96
How Does the Situational Approach Work? 97 Strengths 98 Criticisms 99 Application 102 Case Studies 103
Case 5.1 Marathon Runners at Different Levels 103 Case 5.2 Why Aren’t They Listening? 105 Case 5.3 Getting the Message Across 107
Leadership Instrument 108 Situational Leadership Questionnaire: Sample Items 109
Summary 112 References 113
6. Path–Goal Theory 115 Description 115
Leader Behaviors 117 Directive Leadership 117 Supportive Leadership 117 Participative Leadership 118 Achievement-Oriented Leadership 118
Follower Characteristics 118 Task Characteristics 119
How Does Path–Goal Theory Work? 120 Strengths 122 Criticisms 123 Application 124 Case Studies 125
Case 6.1 Three Shifts, Three Supervisors 126 Case 6.2 Direction for Some, Support for Others 128 Case 6.3 Playing in the Orchestra 129
Leadership Instrument 132 Path–Goal Leadership Questionnaire 133
Summary 135 References 136
7. Leader–Member Exchange Theory 137 Description 137
Early Studies 137 Later Studies 140 Leadership Making 142
How Does LMX Theory Work? 144 Strengths 145 Criticisms 146 Application 148 Case Studies 149
Case 7.1 His Team Gets the Best Assignments 150 Case 7.2 Working Hard at Being Fair 151 Case 7.3 Taking on Additional Responsibilities 152
Leadership Instrument 154 LMX 7 Questionnaire 155
Summary 157 References 158
8. Transformational Leadership 161 Description 161
Transformational Leadership Defined 162 Transformational Leadership and Charisma 164 A Model of Transformational Leadership 166
Transformational Leadership Factors 167 Transactional Leadership Factors 171 Nonleadership Factor 172
Other Transformational Perspectives 172 Bennis and Nanus 172 Kouzes and Posner 174
How Does the Transformational Approach Work? 175 Strengths 176 Criticisms 178 Application 180 Case Studies 181
Case 8.1 The Vision Failed 181 Case 8.2 An Exploration in Leadership 183 Case 8.3 Her Vision of a Model Research Center 185
Leadership Instrument 187 Summary 190 References 191
9. Authentic Leadership 195 Description 195
Authentic Leadership Defined 196 Approaches to Authentic Leadership 197
Practical Approach 197 Theoretical Approach 200
How Does Authentic Leadership Work? 205 Strengths 206 Criticisms 207 Applications 208 Case Studies 209
Case 9.1 Am I Really a Leader? 210 Case 9.2 A Leader Under Fire 212 Case 9.3 The Reluctant First Lady 214
Leadership Instrument 217 Authentic Leadership Self-Assessment Questionnaire 218
Summary 220 References 221
10. Servant Leadership 225 Description 225
Servant Leadership Defined 226 Historical Basis of Servant Leadership 226 Ten Characteristics of a Servant Leader 227 Building a Theory About Servant Leadership 229
Model of Servant Leadership 231 Antecedent Conditions 231 Servant Leader Behaviors 233 Outcomes 236 Summary of the Model of Servant Leadership 238
How Does Servant Leadership Work? 238 Strengths 239
Criticisms 240 Application 241 Case Studies 242
Case 10.1 Everyone Loves Mrs. Noble 243 Case 10.2 Doctor to the Poor 244 Case 10.3 Servant Leadership Takes Flight 247
Leadership Instrument 249 Servant Leadership Questionnaire 250
Summary 253 References 254
11. Adaptive Leadership 257 Description 257
Adaptive Leadership Defined 258 A Model of Adaptive Leadership 260
Situational Challenges 261 Leader Behaviors 263 Adaptive Work 273
How Does Adaptive Leadership Work? 274 Strengths 275 Criticisms 276 Application 277 Case Studies 279
Case 11.1 Silence, Stigma, and Mental Illness 279
Case 11.2 Taming Bacchus 281 Case 11.3 Redskins No More 283
Leadership Instrument 286 Adaptive Leadership Questionnaire 287
Summary 292 References 293
12. Psychodynamic Approach 295 Manfred F. R. Kets de Vries and Alicia Cheak Description 295 The Clinical Paradigm 296 History of the Psychodynamic Approach 297 Key Concepts and Dynamics Within the
Psychodynamic Approach 301 1. Focus on the Inner Theatre 301 2. Focus on the Leader-Follower
Relationships 302 3. Focus on the Shadow Side of Leadership 305
How Does the Psychodynamic Approach Work? 305 Strengths 306
Criticisms 307 Application 308
Group Coaching 309 Case Studies 313
Case 12.1 Dealing With Passive-Aggressives 313 Case 12.2 The Fear of Success 314 Case 12.3 Helping a Bipolar Leader 315
Leadership Instrument 317 The Leadership Archetype
Questionnaire (Abridged Version) 318 Summary 324 References 324
13. Leadership Ethics 329 Description 329
Ethics Defined 330 Level 1. Preconventional Morality 331 Level 2. Conventional Morality 332 Level 3. Postconventional Morality 332
Ethical Theories 333 Centrality of Ethics to Leadership 336 Heifetz’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership 337 Burns’s Perspective on Ethical Leadership 338 The Dark Side of Leadership 339 Principles of Ethical Leadership 341
Ethical Leaders Respect Others 341 Ethical Leaders Serve Others 342 Ethical Leaders Are Just 344 Ethical Leaders Are Honest 345 Ethical Leaders Build Community 346
Strengths 347 Criticisms 348 Application 349 Case Studies 349
Case 13.1 Choosing a Research Assistant 350 Case 13.2 How Safe Is Safe? 351 Case 13.3 Reexamining a Proposal 352
Leadership Instrument 355 Perceived Leader Integrity Scale (PLIS) 356
Summary 359 References 360
14. Team Leadership 363 Susan E. Kogler Hill Description 363
Team Leadership Model 366 Team Effectiveness 367 Leadership Decisions 372 Leadership Actions 377
How Does the Team Leadership Model Work? 381 Strengths 382 Criticisms 383 Application 384 Case Studies 385
Case 14.1 Can This Virtual Team Work? 385 Case 14.2 They Dominated the Conversation 386 Case 14.3 Starts With a Bang, Ends With a Whimper 387
Leadership Instrument 389 Team Excellence and Collaborative
Team Leader Questionnaire 391 Summary 393 References 393
15. Gender and Leadership 397 Crystal L. Hoyt and Stefanie Simon Description 397
The Glass Ceiling Turned Labyrinth 398 Evidence of the Leadership Labyrinth 398 Understanding the Labyrinth 399
Gender Differences in Leadership Styles and Effectiveness 401
Navigating the Labyrinth 406 Strengths 409 Criticisms 410 Application 411 Case Studies 411
Case 15.1 The “Glass Ceiling” 412 Case 15.2 Lack of Inclusion and Credibility 413 Case 15.3 Pregnancy as a Barrier to Job Status 414
Leadership Instrument 415 The Gender–Leader Implicit Association Test 416
Summary 419 References 420
16. Culture and Leadership 427 Description 427
Culture Defined 428 Related Concepts 428
Ethnocentrism 428 Prejudice 429
Dimensions of Culture 430 Uncertainty Avoidance 431 Power Distance 432 Institutional Collectivism 432 In-Group Collectivism 432 Gender Egalitarianism 433 Assertiveness 433 Future Orientation 433 Performance Orientation 434 Humane Orientation 434
Clusters of World Cultures 434 Characteristics of Clusters 436
Anglo 437 Confucian Asia 437 Eastern Europe 437 Germanic Europe 437 Latin America 438 Latin Europe 438 Middle East 438 Nordic Europe 439 Southern Asia 439 Sub-Saharan Africa 439
Leadership Behavior and Culture Clusters 439 Eastern Europe Leadership Profile 441 Latin America Leadership Profile 441 Latin Europe Leadership Profile 441 Confucian Asia Leadership Profile 443 Nordic Europe Leadership Profile 443 Anglo Leadership Profile 444 Sub-Saharan Africa Leadership Profile 445 Southern Asia Leadership Profile 445 Germanic Europe Leadership Profile 446 Middle East Leadership Profile 446
Universally Desirable and Undesirable Leadership Attributes 448
Strengths 449 Criticisms 450 Application 451 Case Studies 452
Case 16.1 A Challenging Workplace 452 Case 16.2 A Special Kind of Financing 454 Case 16.3 Whose Hispanic Center Is It? 456
Leadership Instrument 458 Dimensions of Culture Questionnaire 459
Summary 464 References 465
Author Index 467 Subject index 477
About the Author 491
About the Contributors 493
This seventh edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice is written with the objective of bridging the gap between the often-simplistic popular approaches to leadership and the more abstract theoretical approaches. Like the previous editions, this edition reviews and analyzes a selected number of leadership theories, giving special attention to how each theoretical approach can be applied in real-world organizations. In essence, my purpose is to explore how leadership theory can inform and direct the way leadership is practiced.
NEW TO THIS EDITION
New to this volume is a chapter on adaptive leadership, which examines the nature of adaptive leadership, its underpinnings, and how it works. The chapter presents a definition, a model, and the latest research and applica- tions of this emerging approach to leadership. In addition, the strengths and weaknesses of the adaptive leadership approach are examined, and a ques- tionnaire to help readers assess their own levels of adaptive leadership is provided. Three case studies illustrating adaptive leadership are presented at the end of the chapter.
This volume also presents an entirely new chapter on psychodynamic leader- ship written by a leading expert in the field, Manfred F. R. Kets De Vries, and Alicia Cheak. Like the other chapters, this chapter provides a theoreti- cal explanation of psychodynamic leadership, applications, cases studies, and an assessment instrument.
This edition also includes an expanded discussion of the dark side of leader- ship and psuedotransformational leadership and the negative uses and abuses of leadership. New research has been added throughout the book as
xvIII Leadership Theory and pracTice
well as many new case studies and examples that help students apply leader- ship concepts to contemporary settings.
This edition retains many special features from previous editions but has been updated to include new research findings, figures and tables, and every- day applications for many leadership topics including leader–member exchange theory, transformational and authentic leadership, team leadership, the labyrinth of women’s leadership, and historical definitions of leadership. The format of this edition parallels the format used in earlier editions. As with previous editions, the overall goal of Leadership: Theory and Practice is to advance our understanding of the many different approaches to leadership and ways to practice it more effectively.
Although this text presents and analyzes a wide range of leadership research, every attempt has been made to present the material in a clear, concise, and interesting manner. Reviewers of the book have consistently commented that clarity is one of its major strengths. In addition to the writing style, several other features of the book help make it user-friendly.
• Each chapter follows the same format: It is structured to include first theory and then practice.
• Every chapter contains a discussion of the strengths and criticisms of the approach under consideration, and assists the reader in determin- ing the relative merits of each approach.
• Each chapter includes an application section that discusses the prac- tical aspects of the approach and how it could be used in today’s organizational settings.
• Three case studies are provided in each chapter to illustrate common leadership issues and dilemmas. Thought-provoking questions follow each case study, helping readers to interpret the case.
• A questionnaire is provided in each of the chapters to help the reader apply the approach to his or her own leadership style or setting.
• Figures and tables illustrate the content of the theory and make the ideas more meaningful.
Through these special features, every effort has been made to make this text substantive, understandable, and practical.
This book provides both an in-depth presentation of leadership theory and a discussion of how it applies to real-life situations. Thus, it is intended for undergraduate and graduate classes in management, leadership studies, business, educational leadership, public administration, nursing and allied health, social work, criminal justice, industrial and organizational psychol- ogy, communication, religion, agricultural education, political and military science, and training and development. It is particularly well suited as a supplementary text for core organizational behavior courses or as an over- view text within MBA curricula. This book would also be useful as a text in student activities, continuing education, in-service training, and other leadership-development programs.
Instructor Teaching Site
SAGE edge for Instructors, a password-protected instructor resource site, supports teaching by making it easy to integrate quality content and create a rich learning environment for students. The test banks, which have been expanded for this edition, include multiple-choice and true/false questions to test comprehension, as well as essay questions that ask students to apply the material. An electronic test bank, compatible with PCs and Macs through Diploma software, is also available. Chapter-specific resources include PowerPoint slides, study and discussion questions, suggested exer- cises, full-text journal articles, and video and audio links. General resources include course-long projects, sample syllabi, film resources, and case notes. Printable PDF versions of the questionnaires from the text are included for instructors to print and distribute for classroom use. A course cartridge includes assets found on the Instructor Teaching Site and the Student Study Site, as well as a bonus quiz for each chapter in the book—all in an easy-to- upload package. Go to edge.sagepub.com/northouse7e to access the com- panion site.
Student Study Site
SAGE edge for Students provides a personalized approach to help students accomplish their coursework goals in an easy-to-use learning environment. Mobile-friendly eFlashcards and practice quizzes strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts and allow for independent assessment by students of their mastery of course material. A customized online action plan includes
xx Leadership Theory and pracTice
tips and feedback on progress through the course and materials, which allows students to individualize their learning experience. Learning objec- tives, multimedia links, discussion questions, and SAGE journal articles help students study and reinforce the most important material. Students can go to edge.sagepub.com/northouse7e to access the site.
Icons appearing at the bottom of the page will direct you to online media such as videos, audio links, journal articles, and reference articles that cor- respond with key chapter concepts. Visit the Student Study Site at edge. sagepub.com/northouse7e to access this media.
northouse on Leadership
saGe Journal article
Many people directly or indirectly contributed to the development of the seventh edition of Leadership: Theory and Practice. First, I would like to acknowledge my editor, Maggie Stanley, and her talented team at SAGE Publications (Nicole, Abbie, MaryAnn, Liz, Katie, and Lauren) who have contributed significantly to the quality of this edition and ensured its suc- cess. For their very capable work during the production phase, I would like to thank copy editor Melinda Masson, and senior project editor Libby Lar- son. In her own unique way, each of these people made valuable contribu- tions to the seventh edition.
For comprehensive reviews of the seventh edition, I would like to thank the following reviewers:
Meera Alagaraja, University of Louisville
Mel Albin, Excelsior College
Thomas Batsching, Reutlingen University
Cheryl Beeler, Angelo State University
Mark D. Bowman, Methodist University
Dianne Burns, University of Manchester
Eric Buschlen, Central Michigan University
Steven Bryant, Drury University
Daniel Calhoun, Georgia Southern University
David Conrad, Augsburg College
Joyce Cousins, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland
xxII Leadership Theory and pracTice
Denise Danna, LSUHSC School of Nursing
S. Todd Deal, Georgia Southern University
Caroline S. Fulmer, University of Alabama
Greig A. Gjerdalen, Capilano University
Andrew Gonzales, University of California, Irvine
Carl Holschen, Missouri Baptist University
Kiran Ismail, St. John’s University
Irma Jones, University of Texas at Brownsville
Michele D. Kegley, University of Cincinnati, Blue Ash College
David Lees, University of Derby
David S. McClain, University of Hawaii at Manoa
Carol McMillan, New School University
Richard Milter, Johns Hopkins University
Christopher Neck, Arizona State University–Tempe
Keeok Park, University of La Verne
Richard Parkman, University of Plymouth
Chaminda S. Prelis, University of Dubuque
Casey Rae, George Fox University
Noel Ronan, Waterford Institute of Technology
Louis Rubino, California State University, Northridge
Shadia Sachedina, Baruch College (School of Public Affairs)
Harriet L. Schwartz, Carlow University
Kelli K. Smith, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
David Swenson, The College of St. Scholastica
Danny L. Talbot, Washington State University
Robert L. Taylor, University of Louisville
Precious Taylor-Clifton, Cambridge College
John Tummons, University of Missouri
Kristi Tyran, Western Washington University
Tamara Von George, Granite State College
Natalie Walker, Seminole State College
William Welch, Bowie State University
David E. Williams, Texas Tech University
Tony Wohlers, Cameron University
Sharon A. Wulf, Worcester Polytechnic Institute School of Business
Alec Zama, Grand View University
Xia Zhao, California State University, Dominguez Hills
I would like to thank, for their exceptional work on the leadership profile tool and the ancillaries, Isolde Anderson (Hope College), John Baker (Western Kentucky University), Renee Kosiarek (North Central College) and Lisa Burgoon (University of Illinois), and for his feedback in the con- struction and scoring of the adaptive leadership questionnaire, Paul Yelsma (Western Michigan University).
A special acknowledgment goes to Laurel Northouse for her insightful critiques and ongoing support. In addition, I am grateful to Marie Lee, for her exceptional editing and guidance throughout this project. For their reviews of and comments on the adaptive leadership chapter, I am indebted to Sarah Chace (Marian University), Carl Larson (University of Denver), and Chip Bailey (Duke University).
Finally, I would like to thank the many undergraduate and graduate students whom I have taught through the years. Their ongoing feedback has helped clarify my thinking about leadership and encouraged me to make plain the practical implications of leadership theories.
SAGE was founded in 1965 by Sara Miller McCune to support the dissemination of usable knowledge by publishing innovative and high-quality research and teaching content. Today, we publish more than 750 journals, including those of more than 300 learned societies, more than 800 new books per year, and a growing range of library products including archives, data, case studies, reports, conference highlights, and video. SAGE remains majority-owned by our founder, and after Sara’s lifetime will become owned by a charitable trust that secures our continued independence.
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Leadership is a highly sought-after and highly valued commodity. In the 15 years since the first edition of this book was published, the public
has become increasingly captivated by the idea of leadership. People con- tinue to ask themselves and others what makes good leaders. As individuals, they seek more information on how to become effective leaders. As a result, bookstore shelves are filled with popular books about leaders and advice on how to be a leader. Many people believe that leadership is a way to improve their personal, social, and professional lives. Corporations seek those with leadership ability because they believe they bring special assets to their organizations and, ultimately, improve the bottom line. Academic institu- tions throughout the country have responded by providing programs in leadership studies.
In addition, leadership has gained the attention of researchers worldwide. A review of the scholarly studies on leadership shows that there is a wide variety of different theoretical approaches to explain the complexities of the leader- ship process (e.g., Bass, 1990; Bryman, 1992
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