PSY2030-Written Extra Credit Assignments The goal of this assignment is to read an academic journal article and demonstrate that you understand the important methods and statistics
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PSY2030-Written Extra Credit Assignments
The goal of this assignment is to read an academic journal article and demonstrate that you
understand the important methods and statistics information. You are to produce a written summary
of one of the joumal articles found in the "Extra Credit Assignment Articles" folder, responding to
the questions below.
Assignments should be uploaded as a Word or pdf document under the Assignments tab in Canvas.
Written assignments are due by Wednesday, April 27th. at 11:30 pm (Note: this is a later date than
listed on the syllabus, due to my delay in posting the assignment.)
Each written article assignment will be worth 5 points.
Provide the following in your report:
1. Include the APA style citation for the article at the top of the page.
2. What is the primary research question or hypothesis?
3. Name the statistical test the researchers used to test this research question/hypothesis (e.g..
single sample z test). Even if the authors only report something like "test" or "ANOVA" you
should articulate which specific type of test was conducted.
4. Report the statistical results (in APA format) of the primary research question. You might
locate relevant findings from the text as well as relevant tables (or perhaps a combination of
5. Summarize the interpretation of the results-what do these statistics tell us regarding the
6. Given the findings, identify one follow-up research question that researchers could test in a
future study. (Should not be one suggested by the authors in the article.) This comes from
you, not the article, but should reflect critical consideration of the research question(s) and
results of the article.
Wholesome Foods and Wholesome Morals? Organic Foods Reduce Prosocial Behavior and Harshen Moral Judgments
Kendall J. Eskine 1
Recent research has revealed that specific tastes can influence moral processing, with sweet tastes inducing prosocial behavior and disgusting tastes harshening moral judgments. Do similar effects apply to different food types (comfort foods, organic foods, etc.)? Although organic foods are often marketed with moral terms (e.g., Honest Tea, Purity Life, and Smart Balance), no research to date has investigated the extent to which exposure to organic foods influences moral judgments or behavior. After viewing a few organic foods, comfort foods, or control foods, participants who were exposed to organic foods volunteered significantly less time to help a needy stranger, and they judged moral transgressions significantly harsher than those who viewed nonorganic foods. These results suggest that exposure to organic foods may lead people to affirm their moral identities, which attenuates their desire to be altruistic.
morality, prosociality, organic food, moral licensing, embodied cognition
Organic foods, which are typically the products of ethical and
environmentally friendly practices, are often marketed with
moral terms (e.g., Honest Tea, Purity Life, Smart Balance,
etc.). Is this just a marketing strategy, a linguistic coincidence,
or do people’s conceptual representations of organic food and
morality actually share the same mental space? Some research
suggests that exposure to different types of tastes and foods can
influence higher order judgments involved with complex
domains like morality and prosocial behavior.
In the domain of taste, Meier, Moeller, Riemer-Peltz, and
Robinson (2012) revealed that people were more willing to
help others after tasting something sweet, whereas Eskine,
Kacinik, and Prinz (2011) showed that disgusting tastes can
lead to harsher moral judgments. In the domain of food, Trisoli
and Gabriel (2011) found that exposure to comfort foods like
chicken soup alleviated feelings of loneliness, and Bastian,
Loughnan, Haslam, and Radke (2012) revealed that the extent
to which meat-eaters attributed moral status to animals
depended largely on whether they were likely to consume those
animals. For example, animals that were perceived as highly
edible (e.g., chicken, cow, and fish) were judged to be signifi-
cantly less capable of possessing various mental capacities
(e.g., morality, pain, pleasure, memory, emotion, etc.) than ani-
mals that were perceived as inedible (e.g., mole, rat, and sloth).
While the above research highlights how our daily interac-
tions with different foods and tastes can influence moral pro-
cessing, no research to date has experimentally investigated
the extent to which exposure to organic foods influences moral
behavior and moral judgments. In order to test whether
exposure to organic food does in fact give rise to the moral
superiority suggested by its marketing, participants were
exposed to one of the three different food types (organic, com-
fort, or control) prior to receiving an opportunity to help a
needy other and making moral judgments.
Two outcomes are likely with respect to organic food.
Drawing from Schnall, Roper, and Fessler’s (2010) research
on feelings of elevation, one possibility is that exposure to
organic foods will make participants feel good about them-
selves and therefore subsequently engage in more altruistic
acts, which would result in greater volunteerism and kinder
moral judgments. On the other hand, the second possibility
would make opposite predictions.
Rozin (1999) argued that moralization takes place when pre-
ferences are transformed into values, a process that often
occurs in health domains (e.g., cigarette smoking, drugs, etc.).
Going beyond mere marketing terms, there are at least two pos-
sible routes that may lead organic food exposure to increase the
salience of one’s moral identity. The first route leads people to
1 Department of Psychological Sciences, Loyola University New Orleans, New
Orleans, LA, USA
Kendall J. Eskine, Department of Psychological Sciences, Loyola University New
Orleans, Box 194, 6363 Saint Charles Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70118, USA.
Email: [email protected]
Social Psychological and Personality Science 4(2) 251-254 ª The Author(s) 2012 Reprints and permission: sagepub.com/journalsPermissions.nav DOI: 10.1177/1948550612447114 spps.sagepub.com
moralize their preferences for organic foods for reasons of
health, what some might consider ‘‘moral expansion’’ (Rozin,
1997). The second route leads people to moralize their prefer-
ences for organic foods because it is viewed as a morally super-
ior choice for the environment, which is an example of ‘‘moral
piggybacking’’ (Rozin, 1997). While it is also possible that
some people could take both routes, the resulting moralization
processes should similarly cause individuals’ moral identities
to become more salient when being exposed to organic foods.
Based on the research from moral licensing, which indicates
that people are less likely to act altruistically when their moral identities are salient (Sachdeva, Iliev, & Medin, 2009), the
present research predicts that those exposed to organic foods
would help less and make harsher moral judgments compared
to those exposed to nonorganic foods.
Sixty-two Loyola University undergraduates (37 females and 25
males) participated in the present experiment for course credit and
were randomly assigned to one of the three food conditions
(organic, comfort, and control) in a between-subjects design. Told
that they were participating in two unrelated studies (a consumer
research survey about food desirability and a separate moral judg-
ment task), participants were first given a packet containing four
counterbalanced pictures of food items from one of the following
categories: organic foods with organic food labels (apple, spi-
nach, tomato, and carrot), comfort foods (ice cream, cookie, cho-
colate, and brownie), or control foods (oatmeal, rice, mustard, and
beans) (see Figure 1). Participants also rated each food item on a
7-point scale (1 ¼ not at all desirable to 7 ¼ very desirable) to help corroborate the cover story as well as provide information
about their personal food preferences. All food items were chosen
based on survey results from a separate sample of participants (N
¼ 28, 16 females) during which they rated a variety of foods on a 7-point scale (1 ¼ typical comfort food, 4 ¼ neither comfort nor organic food, 7 ¼ typical organic food), giving the following
results for organic foods (M ¼ 6.61, SD ¼ 1.17), comfort foods (M ¼ 1.54, SD¼ .98), and neither comfort nor organic and hence ‘‘control’’ foods (M ¼ 4.32, SD ¼ 1.37).
Participants next received a packet containing six counter-
balanced moral transgressions describing second cousins enga-
ging in consensual incest, a man eating his already-dead dog, a
congressman accepting bribes, a lawyer prowling hospitals
for victims, a person shoplifting, and a student stealing library
books (Wheatley & Haidt, 2005). Each moral judgment was
indicated on a 7-point scale (1 ¼ not at all morally wrong to 7 ¼ very morally wrong). As with previous research (Eskine, Kacinik, & Prinz, 2011), all judgments were aver-
aged into a single score.
After next answering demographic questions, participants
were told ‘‘that another professor from another department is
also conducting research and really needs volunteers.’’ They
were informed that they would not receive course credit or
compensation for their help and were asked to indicate how
many minutes (of the 30) they would be willing to volunteer
(a commonly used measure of prosocial behavior, Meier et
al., 2012). All participants were debriefed and probed for sus-
picion, although no participants indicated any awareness of the
A between-subjects analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed an
overall effect of food type on prosocial behavior, F(2, 59) ¼ 8.894, p < .001, Zp
2 ¼ .232, and a follow-up Tukey’s honestly significant difference (HSD) test showed that those exposed to
organic food volunteered significantly less time (n ¼ 20, M ¼ 13.40, SD ¼ 9.38.) than those exposed to control foods (n ¼ 20, M ¼ 19.88, SD ¼ 10.33), p < .05, or comfort foods (n ¼ 22, M ¼ 24.55, SD ¼ 5.49), p < .001, with the latter two groups not significantly differing (see Table 1). To demonstrate that these
effects were driven by organic food exposure and not the sub-
jective desirability of each food item, each participant’s four
Apple Ice Cream Mustard
Figure 1. Example food item pictures from the organic, comfort, and control conditions, respectively.
252 Social Psychological and Personality Science 4(2)
food desirability ratings were averaged into an overall desir-
ability score, which was then treated as a covariate. The result
of this analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was still significant,
F(2, 58) ¼ 8.042, p ¼ .001, Zp2 ¼ .217, thus ruling out the effects of subjective food desirability.
A separate ANOVA on averaged moral judgments indicated
an overall effect of food type, F(2, 59) ¼ 7.516, p ¼ .001, Zp
2 ¼ .203, and a follow-up Tukey’s HSD test showed that those exposed to organic food made significantly harsher
moral judgments (M ¼ 5.58, SD ¼ .59) than those exposed to control foods (M ¼ 5.08, SD ¼ .62), p < .05, or comfort foods (M ¼ 4.89, SD ¼ .57), p ¼ .001, with the latter two groups not significantly differing (see Table 1). An ANCOVA
was conducted with desirability as a covariate and still
revealed a significant effect of food type, F(2, 58) ¼ 7.210, p ¼ .002, Zp2 ¼ .199, indicating that food desirability did not play a significant role in moral judgment.
Together, these findings reveal that organic foods and morality
do share the same conceptual space. As predicted, the findings
showed that exposure to ethical and environmentally friendly
foods resulted in reduced prosocial behavior and harsher
moral judgments. Importantly, the results also indicated that
participants’ food preferences did not influence their prosoci-
ality or moral judgments, thus ruling out subjective desirabil-
ity in the present research. Therefore, the present research
suggests that exposure to organic foods helps people affirm
their moral identities and attenuates their desire to be altruis-
tic, as found by Sachdeva, Iliev, and Medin (2009). In a sim-
ilar vein, Mazar and Zhong (2010) provide evidence for such a
view. In particular, they found that participants were more
likely to cheat and steal after purchasing ‘‘green’’ rather than
conventional products. Since green and organic products
share many commonalities, it seems likely that environmen-
tally friendly products can actually affect the salience of one’s
moral identity and induce moral licensing.
Drawing from Rozin (1997, 1999), two mechanisms were
described to explain how exposure to organic foods might
affirm individuals’ moral identities. According to the moral
expansion route, some might moralize their preferences for
organic foods for health reasons, whereas the moral piggyback-
ing route asserts that others might moralize organic food
because it is perceived as a morally superior choice for the
environment, other organisms, and so on. While it is possible
that one could simultaneously endorse both routes, they each
have different theoretical implications. The moral expansion
route proposes that moralization is carried by cognitive-
rational processes, whereas the moral piggybacking route is
carried by affective processes (Rozin, 1999). Accordingly,
these routes might lead us to make different predictions about
the extent to which exposure to organic food affirms individu-
als’ moral identities and enables moral licensing.
Classic findings in persuasion and attitude formation may
shed light on this issue (Petty & Cacioppo, 1984). It is well
documented that long-lasting attitude change is a product of
cognitive-rational processes (central route) rather than affec-
tive processes (peripheral route). Given that both the moraliza-
tion and the persuasion approaches position cognitive and
affective information in distinct channels, similar patterns
might occur in moralization processes. For example, while
both routes can lead to moralization of organic food in gen-
eral, those who moralize in cognitive formats might be more
likely to experience moral licensing than those who moralize
in affective formats because, for them, organic food repre-
sents a deliberate choice (rather than a mere emotional asso-
ciation) in a domain that is meaningful to them, which
further strengthens the salience of their moral identities after
exposure to organic food. Although the present research did
not assess participants’ cognitive and affective attitudes
toward organic food, this raises important empirical questions
and warrants further investigation.
What does this mean for organic marketing? Should
advertisers be cautious of how hard they ‘‘push’’ the branding
of their products? One possibility is that those who simply
purchase organic products will be less likely to engage in
other meaningful acts of environmental protection. Although
organic products are indubitably environmentally sound and
ethical choices, perhaps milder, more subtle advertisements
could help promote the beneficial qualities of these products
without inadvertently inducing moral licensing in its
Further, given the general nutritional differences and bodily
effects of prototypical comfort and organic foods, future
research should also explore whether actually consuming
organic or comfort food differentially influences moral beha-
viors. While the results from the comfort food condition did not
significantly differ from the control condition, the trends sug-
gest that comfort food exposure can induce more prosocial
behavior and kinder moral judgments, which is compatible
with previous descriptions of comfort food as a ‘‘social surro-
gate’’ (Trisoli & Gabriel, 2011). According to this view, com-
fort foods help connect people in a way that fosters
Table 1. Participants’ Prosocial Behavior (in Minutes) and Moral Judgments as a Function of Food Type.
Condition Organic Food Control Food Comfort Food
Prosocial behavior 13.40 (9.38) 19.88 (10.33) 24.55 (5.49) Moral judgment 5.58 (0.59) 5.08 (0.62) 4.89 (0.57)
Mean ratings of prosocial behavior and moral judgments in each condition with standard deviations in parentheses. Higher values in the prosocial and moral judg- ment variables indicate minutes willing to help and harsher moral judgments, respectively.
interpersonal warmth. Therefore, differentiating the effects of
organic and comfort food exposure and consumption remains
an important avenue for future research.
More generally, these results are important because food is a
fundamental part of everyone’s life, and as food choices continue
to expand we should explore its psychological consequences.
People celebrate with food, plan their days around it, and even
organize romantic encounters along various confectionary
delights. Even beyond first dates and lunch breaks, food can also
connect people to their heritage. Recipes can convey information
about a family’s history, its geography, and its relationship to the
environment. Despite its ubiquity in daily life, food has been
vastly underexplored in the psychological sciences, although
important strides have been made recently (Zhong & DeVoe,
2010). For example, Schuldt, Muller, and Schwarz (in press)
found that participants judged chocolate to contain fewer calories
when it was described as fair trade (Study 1) or as treating its
workers ethically (Study 2) when compared to chocolates with
no such descriptions. Taken together, this research has consider-
able implications for understanding how our foods choices and
experiences shape more than just our nutrition.
As Paul Rozin (1996, p. 18) noted, ‘‘Food progresses from
being a source of nutrition and sensory pleasure to being a
social marker, an aesthetic experience, a source of meaning and
metaphor, and, often, a moral entity.’’ Indeed, future research
should investigate food and its corresponding embodied states,
which might serve as an important primary metaphor (Lakoff
& Johnson, 1999) that affects the representation, processing,
and development of our moral conceptual architecture.
The author thanks Nick Dondzila, David Garcia, Samantha Montano,
and Erica Wright for their help with data collection. The author is
especially grateful to Brian Meier, Paula Niedenthal, and two anon-
ymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments on an earlier version
of this draft.
Declaration of Conflicting Interests
The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to
the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
The author(s) received no financial support for the research, author-
ship, and/or publication of this article.
Bastian, B., Loughnan, S., Haslam, N., & Radke, H. (2012). Don’t
mind meat? The denial of mind to animals used for human
consumption. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38,
Eskine, K. J., Kacinik, N. A., & Prinz, J. J. (2011). A bad taste in the
mouth: Gustatory disgust influences moral judgments. Psychologi-
cal Science, 22, 295–299.
Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the flesh: The embo-
died mind and its challenge to Western thought. New York, NY:
Mazar, N., & Zhong, C. B. (2010). Do green products make us better
people? Psychological Science, 21, 494–498.
Meier, B. P., Moeller, S. K., Riemer-Peltz, M., & Robinson, M. D.
(2012). Sweet taste preferences and experiences predict prosocial
inferences, personalities, and behaviors. Journal of Personality
and Social Psychology, 102, 163–174.
Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1984). The effects of involvement on
responses to argument quantity and quality: Central and peripheral
routes to persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychol-
ogy, 46, 69–81.
Rozin, P. (1996). Towards a psychology of food and eating:
From motivation to module to model to marker, morality, mean-
ing, and metaphor. Current Directions in Psychological Science,
Rozin, P. (1997). Moralization. In A. M. Bradt & P. Rozin (Eds.),
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Rozin, P. (1999). The process of moralization. Psychological Science,
Sachdeva, S., Iliev, R., & Medin, D. (2009). Sinning saints and saintly
sinners: The paradox of moral self-regulation. Psychological Sci-
ence, 20, 523–528.
Schnall, S., Roper, J., & Fessler, D. M. T. (2010). Elevation leads to
altruistic behavior. Psychological Science, 21, 315–320.
Schuldt, J. P., Muller, D., & Schwarz, N. (2012). The ‘‘fair trade’’
effect: Health halos from social ethics claims. Social Psychological
and Personality Science. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/
Trisoli, J. D., & Gabriel, S. (2011). Chicken soup really is good for the
soul: ‘‘Comfort food’’ fulfills the need to belong. Psychological
Science, 19, 747–753.
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Kendall J. Eskine is an assistant professor at the Loyola University
New Orleans, who studies embodied cognition, food psychology, and
the representation and processing of abstract concepts.
254 Social Psychological and Personality Science 4(2)
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