Instructions: Please respond to each peer. Must be 200 words or more. In-Text citations scholarly sources only from 2017-2022. 1-2 references for each. No direct quotes. In your replies to peers, compare the different biological agents, their implications and therapies. Discuss the different types of decontamination procedures and levels of PPE that would be required. Please provide links with references.
Bioterrorism is the attack of the intentional release of a virus or a bacteria, which can cause either an illness or even the death of an individual (Biodefense and bioterrorism 2017). According to Doctor Angelo Acquista, the director of the center for International Executive Health, bioterrorism uses biological organisms to instill fear in individuals, which is one reason why he wrote the book. If individuals were to empower themselves with knowledge, they will be less fearful about things they don’t know.Anthrax classified as category 1, is one of the bacteria that was used in bioterrorism in the United States. Anthrax is a bacteria which is known as Bacillus anthracis. Although this is a rare bacteria, it can still cause serious illness. Individuals can become infected via direct or indirect contact with sick animals, or also by eating contaminated meat. Some symptoms include nausea, vomiting, headache, flu-like symptoms, fever, chest discomfort, shock, and meningitis (Anthrax 2022).There is a vaccine available for the bacteria, but unfortunately, it is only for certain individuals. Such as military personnel, and individuals who work high-risk jobs. The vaccine cannot lead to infection, but just like other vaccines and medications, it can cause side effects. There are certain antibiotics that can be used for this as well such as ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, or levofloxacin (Anthrax 2022).Chlorine products can be used on surfaces to disinfect when it comes to healthcare or laboratory environments, but when it comes to a stricter location, they do require a special decontamination procedure such as electron beams and chemical disinfectants. To be protected from this bacteria, proper PPE must be worn such as boot covers, chemical-resistant/impermeable suits, gloves, face masks, and shields to protect your eyes as well (Department of Labor Logo United States department of Labor 2008).
From October 4th to November 20th, 2001, a total of 22 cases of Anthrax contamination – both cutaneous and inhalations – were recorded In the United States. The outbreak was done by contaminating envelopes going through the U.S. post office with the biological agent – 5 out of 11 inhalation cases resulted in death. Anthrax – or B. anthracis – is classified as a Category A Agent mainly due to its ability to stay active in the environment for so many years (cdc.gov, 2001). Symptoms for anthrax infection vary depend on the form of infection; cutaneous anthrax may manifest with small bumps/blisters; swelling around sores; and painless ulcers with a black center – usually on the face, neck, arms, or hands). Inhalation anthrax can have more severe symptoms including fever/chills, severe sweating, N/V and abdominal pain, body aches among others (cdc.gov, n.d.). Anthrax infection is treated with antibiotics – ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, or levofloxacin – however, which one to use, the length of therapy, and which antibiotic will best relieve the infection varies by mode of infection, person’s age, health, and other health factors (mayoclinic.org, 2022). Chemicals used for the disinfection of B. anthracin contamination also depends on the situation. For surfaces, sodium hypochlorite – also known as bleach – has shown to be effective. Diklor-G Chloride Sterilant precursor is a stronger chemical used; however, its use is reserved only for Federal On-Screen Coordinators and its contractors. Federal and state response personnel, U.S. military personnel, and other individuals – all highly trained – are also allowed the use of this chemical but under the supervision of FOSCs. During decontamination of this agent, PPE is used by all personnel; this includes respiratory protection, protective garments – coveralls, boot covers, and impermeable suits – eye and face protection, as well as gloves (OSHA.gov, n.d.)
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