I collect the information for part one but in need to paraphrase and organize Do not forget to label each section Use this study for part 3
I collect the information for part one but in need to paraphrase and organize
Do not forget to label each section
Use this study for part 3
This project will be about obesity in Miami data county
also the example of diagram in part 2 i have attached as Screenshot
Page 1 of 2 Health Education & Behavior EPH 620
Assignment #2- Paper on Determinants & Preventive Interventions to Address Community Public Health Need Assignment Instructions (see Syllabus for Due Date)
For this class, Assignments #1, #2 and #3 will build upon the in-class lectures, small group work and the
evidence-based public health approach described by Brownson et al. (2009). As such, it is essential for students to attend class, participate actively, and become familiar with instructions for all three assignments. The grading rubric is below. For Assignment #2, students will write a multi-component paper that includes the following 3 sections, applying principles/ strategies reviewed in class (label paper sections with words in bold below): 1. Identify and summarize determinants of a public health problem. Students will conduct a literature search
using PubMed on one of the local public health problems identified in the community needs assessment from Assignment #1. Using an ecological framework, students will summarize determinants (both risk and protective factors) of the health problem at different levels- including: individual/ biological, interpersonal/ social, community, environmental, cultural, and policy determinants. The social determinants section must describe how structural bias, social inequities and racism influence the health problem. Specify any health disparities or inequities. Section should follow CDC Model’s Step #2 -“Identify risk and protective factors” (approximately 1 ½ pages recommended)
2. Use a systems thinking tool diagram to illustrate in a diagram the determinants of the public health problem. Students will summarize the multiple determinants of this health problem by drawing a path or causal loop diagram of the determinants, their relationship to each other, and relationship to the public health outcome. Use PowerPoint or similar software to draw diagram and show systems thinking. Briefly describe the diagram in the narrative of the paper (1-page diagram, ½ page description recommended).
3. Describe and evaluate an evidence-based prevention intervention for this community to consider in addressing the public health problem. Students will conduct a PubMed search and identify and describe an evidence based prevention intervention, specifically one that has been efficacious as tested in a randomized controlled trial – RCT. (Note- if a policy intervention is selected, an RCT is not required; however, the policy outcomes must have been evaluated using rigorous methods and presented in a peer- reviewed journal.) Students must summarize the: a) study population, b) intervention activities, c) evaluation of the main results of the RCT, d) theory or framework used by the intervention, and e) how the intervention should be adapted for implementation in the local community (include language, cultural practices and values, age, geographical location and other considerations) Section should follow CDC Model’s Step #3 -“Developing and testing interventions” (approximately 2 pages recommended)
Other, specific paper requirements: • Approximately 5 pages, double-spaced, Times New Roman 11 font, 1” margins paper (Note- 5 pages
limit includes text and illustration, but does not include title page or references as part of page limit.) • Paper must include sections #1-3 and address all required sections above (Please label sections and
subsections exactly as in bold above) • Paper must include: title page with Student Name, Date, Health Ed & Behavior Class, Assignment # • References section. Please use American Psychological Association or American Medical Association style.
The paper must also have in-text citations throughout the paper in the corresponding style. • Submit final papers as Microsoft Word documents via Blackboard using correct link “Assignment #2”. • Unexcused, late papers will be penalized for each hour they are late. Please stay alert to paper deadline.
Brownson, R.C., Fielding, J.E., & Maylahn, C.M. (2009). Evidence-based public health: A fundamental concept for public health practice. Annual Review of Public Health, 30, 175-201.
Page 2 of 2
Grading Rubric. Evaluation for this assignment will be based on: 1. Completeness and
following instructions (25 points), for example:
o Are the 3 paper sections specified and addressed per instructions? o Section 1.
o Is ecological model specified and explained correctly? o Are multiple determinants (risk and protective factors) specified at
different levels (individual/ biological, interpersonal/ social, community, environmental, cultural, policy, etc.)?
o Does social determinants section describe how structural bias, social inequities and racism influence the health problem?
o Are any health disparities or inequities specified? o Section 2.
o Is a diagram included that illustrates the relationships among multiple determinants (risk and protective factors) in this section using a systems thinking tool (i.e., path model, causal loop diagram)?
o Is PowerPoint or similar software used for the diagram? o Is diagram explained clearly in the written narrative of the paper?
o Section 3. o Is an evidence-based intervention described that was tested in an RCT
(or appropriately evaluated policy intervention)? o Is there a summary of the required parts of the intervention/ RCT- See
instructions sections 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, and 3e (i.e., study population, theory, results, etc.)?
o Are guidelines on word/ page limit followed? 2. Accuracy of writing
(25 points), for example:
o Are statistics recent and correct, including determinants and disparities? o Are key terms defined properly as needed, and are they correctly used (e.g.,
public health terms, determinants, causal risk and protective factors, randomized controlled trial)?
o Are key determinants and preventive interventions from the peer-reviewed literature correctly and properly described?
o Are statements accurate? 3. Critical thinking,
logic and ability to justify all statements made (25 points), for example:
o Are statements justified and supported by appropriate evidence and peer- reviewed literature?
o Is the systems thinking diagram from Section #2 logical, justified and clearly explained?
o Does Section #3 include a logical explanation about how the intervention must be adapted for the community?
o Are in-text citations provided and used correctly? o Are references included at the end of the paper, and are they sufficient to
address the paper requirements? o Are references reputable & provide evidence to support statements? o Are statements and conclusions logical, well-sequenced and well-explained?
4. Clarity of writing (25 points), for example:
o Are different sections of the paper connected and integrated? o Is the paper sequenced in logical order and well-organized? o Are paragraphs well-structured? Are transitions between paragraphs used? o Is there a proper introduction and conclusion paragraph to the paper? o Is proper grammar, punctuation, spelling used?
- Health Education & Behavior EPH 620
- Brownson, R.C., Fielding, J.E., & Maylahn, C.M. (2009). Evidence-based public health: A fundamental concept for public health practice. Annual Review of Public Health, 30, 175-201.
Identify and summarize determinants of a public health problem:
individual/ biological, interpersonal/
Intrapersonal Factors: involve an individual's beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge about a health condition.
Lifestyle Causal Beliefs about Obesity
when categorized as ‘some'/‘a lot', 94% of participants held not exercising causal beliefs, 95% held overeating causal beliefs, 90% held eating certain types of food causal beliefs, 70% held chemicals in food causal beliefs, and 41% held smoking causal beliefs about obesity, compared to the 69% who held genetic causal beliefs about obesity. There were few associations between lifestyle causal beliefs about obesity and any of the sociodemographic or health-related characteristics assessed.
Genetic Causal Beliefs about Obesity-Related Diseases
Overall, 82% of participants held genetic causal beliefs about type 2 diabetes (fig. 2), 79% about heart disease (fig. 3) and 75% about cancer (fig. 4), when categorized as ‘some/a lot.' table 3 shows that there were very few associations with participant sociodemographic or health-related characteristics.(all threse from https://www.karger.com/Article/Fulltext/343793)
This study is based on the Ecological Systems Theory and Family and Community Systems perspectives, which emphasize the need to consider the effects of individual, family, community, and societal factors on health and social outcomes (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 1988; Campbell, Hesketh, & Davison, 2010; Elder et al., 2007; Fulkerson et al., 2015; Novilla, Barnes, De La Cruz, Williams, & Rogers, 2006; Valente, 2012).
This study contributes to the literature in several ways and emphasizes that peers and families are important sources of influence when it comes to healthy eating and choices of activities in young adolescents. Specifically, adolescents who reported a stronger connection with their family also engaged more frequently in physical activity than adolescents who reported lower familism. The benefits of targeting the family as part of lifestyle interventions are well established (Epstein, Paluch, Roemmich, & Beecher, 2007; Skelton, Buehler, Irby, & Grzywacz, 2012; St Jeor, Perumean-Chaney, Sigman-Grant, Williams, & Foreyt, 2002). The rationale underlying family-centered approaches is that modification of the youth’s environment is necessary to change and maintain children’s healthy habits. As a primary source of socialization, parents not only influence youths’ healthy lifestyle in providing access to resources and in modeling and reinforcing healthy habits, but they also provide the basis for the development of healthy peer relationships. Conceivably, stronger family connections may operate directly on young adolescents’ physical activity, but also indirectly in establishing the foundations for healthy peer relationships, which in turn promote healthier diet and a less sedentary lifestyle.
Furthermore, adolescents who reported higher PSF had a healthier diet and spent less time engaging in screen behavior than adolescents with lower peer social functioning . Findings are consistent with the protective power of friendships in other areas, such as smoking, drug and alcohol use, bullying, and other peer difficulties (Bollmer, Milich, Harris, & Maras, 2005; Fang et al., 1996; Forster, Grigsby, Bunyan, Unger, & Valente, 2015; Powers, Ressler, & Bradley, 2009). Our findings extend work in this area and suggest that helping adolescents develop healthy peer relationships may, in part, lead to healthier eating habits and protect them against a sedentary lifestyle(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6075537/)
The Healthy Weights Initiative Program is free, community-based obesity reduction program, which works on physical activity and dietary behavior. It addresses the importance of social support as a factor that played a major role in adherence to completion of HWI program. 79% of participants showed positive results in completing the program during 24 weeks(from https://www.dovepress.com/the-importance-of-community-consultation-and-social-support-in-adherin-peer-reviewed-fulltext-article-PPA#ref45).
The importance of social support
Having social support was an important factor for adherence in HWI and is supported in the literature. In a previous study, those who signed contracts experienced nearly double the weight loss of those participants who attempted to lose weight on their own(Harris MB, Bruner CG. A comparison of a self-control and a contract procedure for weight control. Behav Res Ther. 1971;9(4):347–354.). I In a third study, participants with support versus a self-motivated approach for maintaining weight loss discovered that those who received social support were 37% more likely to maintain their weight loss over 2 years(Brantley PJ, Stewart DW, Myers VH, et al. Psychosocial predictors of weight regain in the weight loss maintenance trial. J Behav Med. 2014;37(6):1155–1168.)
For example, a study to determine the benefits of social support for weight loss and maintenance recruited subjects to either participate alone or with three family members or friends. At 6-month follow-up, the study found participants who attended with family or friends were three times more likely to maintain their weight loss after program completion than those who attended alone(Wing RR, Jeffery RW. Benefits of recruiting participants with friends and increasing social support for weight loss and maintenance. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1999;67(1):132–138.)
I would like to present how environmental factors impact obesity populations. Physical activity plays an essential role in preventing becoming obese or overweight. The data from the Miami Matter website showed there were 30.7% of adults are sedentary, and the value didn't reach the health people target of 2030 (21.2%). According to resent study shows Blighted and vacant urban land is a widespread and potentially risky environmental condition encountered by millions of people every day. About 15% of the land in US cities is deemed vacant or abandoned, translating into an area roughly the size of Switzerland: over 3 million hectares of otherwise beneficial spaces remain neglected. Urban residents, especially in low-income neighborhoods, point to these spaces as primary threats to their health and safety. Cities continue to seek meaningful, evidence-based interventions for remediating vacant land. Standardized processes for the restoration of vacant urban land were experimentally tested on a citywide scale and found to significantly reduce gun violence, crime, and fear and increase physical activity(https://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.1718503115)
looks at rules regulations and policies. The places we work, live, and learn play are important role on one’s health.
The two studies to examine the relationship between state PE and recess-related laws on youth obesity reported mixed results. Both analyses linked data on state laws obtained from the NCI’s PERSPCS [48, 49] with individual-level, cross-sectional data for 10–17 year olds obtained from the NSCH. Riis and colleagues found that the odds of youth obesity was higher in states: (1) with stronger laws governing assessment of health-related fitness at the elementary and middle school levels and recess time requirements for elementary schools; and (2) whose laws were strengthened between 2003 and 2006 for physical educator staff qualifications (at the elementary and middle school levels) and PE curriculum standards (across all three grade levels) . Although these findings seem contradictory to the goals of the policies, the authors concluded that states with larger youth obesity problems enacted stronger PE-related laws. Kim did not find any association between the overall PERSPCS policy scores at the state level and individual level youth obesity(https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3916087/)
Also, Implementing School-Based Policies to Prevent Obesity: Cluster Randomized Trial. Healthier school environments can benefit students, and school wellness policies may result in meaningful enhancements. Schools participating in federal child nutrition programs must implement wellness policies as mandated by law.
Analyses followed intention-to-treat principles, with planned secondary analyses (conducted 2016-2018). Students at schools randomized to receive support for nutrition policy implementation had healthier BMI trajectories over time (F=3.20, p=0.02), with a greater magnitude over time and cumulatively significant effects 3 years post-intervention (β=-2.40, p=0.04). Overall, students at schools randomized to receive the nutrition intervention had an increase in BMI percentile of <1%, compared with students in other conditions, whereas BMI percentile increased 3%-4%. There was no difference in student BMI between those in schools with and without physical activity policy implementation. Examining behavioral correlates in eighth grade, students at schools randomized to the nutrition condition consumed fewer unhealthy foods and sugar-sweetened beverages, and ate less frequently at fast-food restaurants (all p<0.03).( https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30573151/)
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