1 day ago
Discussion Two-Main Post
Simpson-Angus Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale
Among patients treated with antipsychotics, it is estimated that approximately 20% – 25% have primary negative symptoms that are sever enough to warrant clinical attention. Reported prevalence for neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism (NIP) in schizophrenia patients are usually in the range 19% to 36% ((Farreny, Savill, & Priebe, 2018). The Simpson-Angus Extrapyramidal Rating Scale (SAS) is an old and well known tool used to evaluate adverse effects from antipsychotic medication. This scale has 10 items to measure extrapyramidal side-effects rated from 0 to 4. It consists of one item measuring gait (hypokinesia), six items measuring rigidity and three items measuring glabella tap, tremor, and salivation (Janno, Holi, Tuisku, & Wahlbeck, 2015). The higher the score, the greater severity.
It should be pointed out, those patients being treated with second-generation antipsychotics such as Zyprexa, Risperdal and Seroquel have been shown to have less extrapyramidal side-effects. The SAS does not measure efficacy of medications, rather it measures the possible negative side-effects of the medication. It is appropriate to use the SAS whenever a client begins treatment with an antipsychotic. Sometimes drug-induced movement disorders occur acutely. They may be dose dependent and they may also have a tardive character and augment upon a dose reduction (Van Strien, Keijers, Derijks, & Van Marum, 2015). When on an inpatient psychiatric unit, it is appropriate to evaluate the client for movement disorder symptoms on a daily basis. When being treated outpatient, the client should be educated about monitoring for movement disorder symptoms and reporting them promptly to their provider.
Farreny, A., Savill, M., & Priebe, S. (2018). Correspondence between negative symptoms and potential sources of secondary negative symptoms over time. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience, 268(6), 603–609. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00406-017-0813-y
Janno, S., Holi, M. M., Tuisku, K., & Wahlbeck, K. (2015). Validity of Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS) in a naturalistic schizophrenia population. BMC neurology, 5(1), 5. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2377-5-5
Van Strien, A. M., Keijsers, C. J., Derijks, H. J., & Van Marum, R. J. (2015). Rating scales to measure side effects of antipsychotic medication: A systematic review. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England), 29(8), 857–866. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881115593893
PLEASE REPLY TO POST
Are you looking for custom essay writing service or even dissertation writing services? Just request for our write my paper service, and we\'ll match you with the best essay writer in your subject! With an exceptional team of professional academic experts in a wide range of subjects, we can guarantee you an unrivaled quality of custom-written papers.
Why Hire Collepals.com writers to do your paper?
Quality- We are experienced and have access to ample research materials.
We write plagiarism Free Content
Confidential- We never share or sell your personal information to third parties.
Support-Chat with us today! We are always waiting to answer all your questions.