Assignment: Psychology Brain
Assignment: Psychology Brain
1. ________ involves the modification of the nervous system by experiences.
2. Your ability to recognize a series of photos that you looked at a month ago is an example of ________.
3. ________ learning involves the ability to exhibit a specific behavior in the presence of a specific stimulus.
4. ________ learning refers to your ability to recall a series of events you have witnessed.
5. The ________ pathway interconnects the entorhinal cortex with the granule cells of the dentate gyrus.
6. Learning to modify your golf swing is an example of ________ learning.
7. Induction of long-term potentiation involves activation of receptors for ________.
8. The ________ receptor is required to establish long-term potentiation.
9. The glutamate antagonist________ blocks NMDA receptors and the formation of LTP.
10. ________ are action potentials that occur along the dendites of a pyramidal cell in the hippocampus.
11. Long-term potentiation is associated with the movement of ________ receptors to the tips of dendritic spines.
12. ________ is a strong candidate to act as a retrograde messenger from the dendrite to the terminal button in the LTP process.
13. Long-lasting LTP requires the formation of the protein _______.
14. ________ receptors are sparse in area CA3 of the hippocampus.
15. ________ learning involves the recognition of particular stimuli or categories of stimuli.
16. ________ cortex neurons play a key role in short-term memory for all sensory systems.
17. ________ memory lasts on the order of seconds.
18. The caudate nucleus and the putamen form the ________.
19. Food for a hungry rat is an example of a(n) ________ reinforcer.
20. Amnesia for events that occur after some disturbance to the brain is called ________.
b. anterograde amnesia
d. Dendritic Spikes
k. Nitric Oxide
o. perceptual learning
1. ________ is a primary disturbance in comprehension or production of speech that is caused by brain damage.
2. The vast majority of the population shows________-hemisphere dominance for speech.
3. The normal rhythm, tone of voice and stress of speech is called ________.
4. ________ aphasia involves damage localized within the inferior left frontal lobe.
5. A function word is important for grammar, whereas ________ words convey meaning.
6. A difficulty in the use of word order, use of function words, and selection of appropriate word endings is termed ________.
7. The speech deficit of ________ is a common feature of all forms of aphasia.
8. involves an impairment of the ability to program tongue, lip, and throat movements to produce speech sounds.
9. ___ involves a difficulty in choosing the right words to express an idea.
10. _________ aphasia can be described as effortless production of meaningless speech.
11. Transcortical sensory aphasia results from damage to the ________.
12. ________ aphasia can be thought of as Wernicke’s aphasia without pure word deafness.
13. Damage to the ________ hemisphere impairs the production of prosody.
14. ______refers to a syndrome in which a person cannot recognize a familiar voice.
15. ________ refers to the inability to visually perceive written words.
16. ________ dyslexia is similar to that of transcortical sensory aphasia, but involving written words.
17. A person who has difficulty in sounding out a word would suffer from ________ dyslexia.
18. ________dysgraphia involves a problem in visually-based reading.
m. Posterior language area
o. Pure alexia
1. ________ is a mass of cells whose growth is uncontrolled and that serves no useful function in the body.
2. A tumor that has a distinct border would be classified as ________.
3. A seizure that involves the primary motor cortex would produce a(n) ________.
4. A ________ seizure does not involve the loss of consciousness.
5. Complex partial seizures involve a loss of ________.
6. ________ seizure disorder is often seen in children and is characterized by a spell of absence.
7. Seizures that are caused by alcohol withdrawal involve increases in neuron in the brain.
8. Prolonged interruption of the blood supply to a region of the brain results in ________.
9. A ________ is a blood clot that forms in a blood vessel.
10. Administration of ________ to dissolve blood clots is a therapy for ischemic stroke, but only if given soon after the onset of symptoms.
11. Blows to the head can increase the risk of developing ________ disease.
12. ________ is caused by an inherited lack of an enzyme that produces tyrosine.
13. A _______ disease is present at birth.
14. A ________ is a contagious form of protein that can damage nerve cells.
15. Parkinson’s disease is caused by degeneration of ________-secreting neurons of the substantia nigra.
16. Some 95 percent of the causes of Parkinson’s disease are classified as ________.
17. Surgical removal of the ________ can alleviate the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
18. ________ refers to deterioration of intellectual abilities caused by an organic brain disorder.
19. Alzheimer’s disease and Korsakoff’s syndrome each induce a memory disorder known as ________ amnesia.
20. Some 90 percent of cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are classified as ________.
21. ________ is an infection disease induced by a virus or bacteria that can result in a stiff neck.
j. globus pallidus
m. Petit mal
p. Simple Partial
q. Sporadic (idiopathic)
r. Sporadic (idiopathic)
t. Tissue Plasminogen Activator
1. The incidence of schizophrenia in the world population is approximately ________ percent.
2. ________ symptoms of schizophrenia represent the absence of normal behaviors.
3. The term ________ refers to “split-mind.”
4. ________ are beliefs that are contrary to fact.
5. A person who believes that he or she is President of the World is most likely suffering from a delusion of ________.
6. The ________ symptoms of schizophrenia are the first to appear in the course of the disorder.
7. Adoption and twin studies suggest that schizophrenia is a ________ trait.
8. The positive symptoms of schizophrenia are reversed by drugs that are ________ receptor antagonists.
9. Studies suggest that schizophrenia may be associated with an increased number of ________ receptors within the brain.
10. The size of the ________ increases in schizophrenic patients.
11. Older antipsychotic drugs such as chlorpromazine can produce a type of motor disorder known as ________.
12. Mothers who ________ show an increased risk of having a schizophrenic child.
13. Weinberger argues that the negative symptoms of schizophrenia are related to decreased activity of the dorsolateral _______.
14. ________ of the frontal cortex contributes to the positive symptoms of schizophrenia by increasing the release of dopamine within the nucleus accumbens.
15. ________ involves feelings of intense elation.
16. ________ refers to alternating episodes of elation and sadness.
17. An important function of ________ is to convert catecholamines and serotonin into inactive forms.
18. ________ delivered electrical shock to the brains of mental patients because he believed that the occurrence of a brain seizure appeared to reduce symptoms in psychiatric patients.
19. A key problem for the use of ________ in the treatment of high blood pressure is the induction of depression.
20. The mood disorder characterized by depression, lethargy, sleep disturbances, craving for carbohydrates, and weight gain is called ________.
b. Bipolar disorder
i. Lateral ventricles
k. monoamine oxidase
n. Prefrontal cortex
q. Seasonal affective disorder
s. Tardive dyskinesia
t. Ugo Cerletti
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