Please answer to these peers, 200 words each reply at least 1 reference no older than 5 years, see attached doc? ?Credible, current and relevant scholarly references. Please make sure
Please answer to these peers, 200 words each reply at least 1 reference no older than 5 years, see attached doc
Credible, current and relevant scholarly references. Please make sure to provide citations and references (in APA, 7th ed. format).
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Correlational analysis in research, especially in the nursing field, constitute an important resource to study the association that might exist among different variables of interest without manipulating or controlling any of them, but mostly observing. It is characterized by being a method that does not consume a lot of time or finances and serve as a tool to analyze, create hypotheses and evidence based guidelines.
This method of investigation is usually applied in 2 scenarios: when researcher want to evaluate non-causal relation between two elements or when the objective is to study a causal link among the variables (Eckel, 2023). In other words, the principal purpose of correlational analysis is to observe and predict.
Once the research obtain the results, it can have three possible outcomes which are classified depending on a numerical value known as correlational coefficient which can vary from -1.00 (negative) to +1.00 (positive). These results are then classified as positive (when the variables under study increase or decrease at the same time), negative (referred as a result in which the variable gives opposite results, that is one increase while the other decrease) or non-correlational (when there result is 0, indicating no relationship among the variables) (Cherry, 2023).
In relation to the methods applied to collect data for correlational analysis we can use surveys, naturalistic observations or secondary data. Depending on the objective and variable to study, researchers need to choose the right methods of data collection. For example, in the case of investigating a population point of view questionnaire can be used; if the goal is to observe behavioral patterns in its normal setting, then the naturalistic observation is used. Finally, if the research plan to compare data that already exists, using information obtained by other researchers in similar studies the method that is used would be the secondary or archival data.
The importance of correlational analysis in nursing is given by the fact that it helps to understand the relationship between variables, serving as a guide for new line of investigations, it can provide predictive insights, evaluate interventions and provide quality improvement in terms of effort by helping to identify which areas of nursing practice needs changes and which are correctly done in order to provide better quality of care.
However, before deciding to apply this method of investigation, researcher should take in consideration the limitations of establishing causal effect among variables, because in this case the study will demand deeper experimental designs (Jansen, et al., 2021).
Cherry, K. (2023). Correlation Studies in Psychology Research. verywell mind. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/correlational-research-2795774
Eckel, J. (2023). Correlational Study: Design, Methods and Examples [Original source: https://studycrumb.com/Correlational-research]. Study crumb. Retrieved from https://studycrumb.com/Correlational-research
Jansen, R., Hoekstra, T., Zoccali, C., Jager , K., Tripepi, G., Dekker, F., & van Diepen, M. (2021). Conducting correlation analysis: important limitations and pitfalls. Clinical kidney journal, 2332-2337. doi:10.1093/ckj/sfab085
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Correlational studies have the purpose of measuring the degree of relationship that exists between two or more concepts or variables in a particular context and relationships between two, three or multiple variables can be analyzed.
The main usefulness of this type of study is to know how a concept or variable can behave, knowing the behavior of other related variables, that is, trying to predict the approximate value that a group of individuals will have in a variable, based on the value that have in the variable or related variables; If there is no correlation between variables, it is an indicator that they vary without following a systematic pattern among themselves (Bhandari, 2023)
Correlational studies are distinguished from descriptive studies mainly in that, while the latter focus on precisely measuring individual variables, several of which can be measured independently in a single investigation; correlational studies evaluate the degree of relationship between two variables, and may include several pairs of evaluations of this nature in a single investigation.
In summary: there is no experimental independent variable that can be manipulated. There is no selection of equivalent groups of subjects. It is based on observation. Data analysis is based on correlational techniques, fundamentally Pearson correlation.
Correlational studies are carried out when the treatment variables cannot be manipulated for various reasons, of which I will point out three:
1. It is impossible to physically manipulate variables. Let's imagine that a psychologist wants to study the relationship between two response measures such as intelligence and academic performance. Intelligence is an individual characteristic, a trait that is defined based on performance on a standardized test and cannot be physically manipulated. However, the relationship can be investigated in a correlational study selecting a group of students from a school, measuring their I.Q. and compare these scores with the school performance of these students.
2. The events have already occurred years ago, for example a group of university students compare their preschool scores with the subsequently obtained in the first stage of secondary education
3. When the manipulation of variables is illegal or unethical, e.g. Relationship between heroin use and the number of heart attacks. It is unethical to administer different doses of heroin to a group of people and see whether or not a heart attack occurs under the most controlled conditions possible, but we can select heroin addicts from the population and monitor them for a time.
Bhandari, P. (2023, June 22). Correlational Research | When & How to Use. Scribbr. Retrieved November 20, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/correlational-research/
Kühberger, A., Fritz, A., & Scherndl, T. (2014). A Diagnosis Based on the Correlation between Effect Size and Sample Size. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105825
Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Lang, A. G. (2009). Statistical power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regression analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 4, 1149-1160.
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