In doing your routine physical exam on your patient, you note that 3+ pitting edema. Select a disorder where pitting edema might be seen and explain the pathophysiology related to this occurrence.
Question 4: In doing your routine physical exam on your patient, you note that 3+ pitting edema. Select a disorder where pitting edema might be seen and explain the pathophysiology related to this occurrence.
Reduced Cardiac Output: In CHF, the heart’s pumping capacity is diminished. As a result, the heart is unable to effectively circulate blood throughout the body. This reduced cardiac output leads to inadequate blood perfusion to the kidneys. Activation of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System (RAAS): In response to reduced blood flow to the kidneys, the RAAS is activated. This hormonal system causes the kidneys to retain sodium and water in an attempt to increase blood volume and improve cardiac output. Fluid Retention: The retention of sodium and water by the kidneys leads to an increase in blood volume. This excess fluid can leak out of the blood vessels and into the surrounding tissues, causing edema. Pitting edema occurs when this excess fluid accumulates in the interstitial spaces of the skin and underlying tissues. Peripheral Edema: In CHF, fluid often accumulates in the lower extremities, leading to pitting edema in the ankles, feet, and legs. This occurs because gravity causes the fluid to pool in the dependent areas of the body. Pitting edema in CHF is a clinical sign of fluid overload resulting from the heart’s inability to effectively pump blood.
Question. Which type of cellular adaptation has an increased rate of cell division? Select a condition/disorder that exhibits this behavior and explain the reasons that this occurs
.Answer. The human body is a complex entity composed of many different types of cells. These cells are responsible for various mechanisms that may require them to adapt to changes in their environment. One type of cellular adaptation is hyperplasia which is characterized by a rise in the quantity of cells or tissue specifically due to a jump in cell division (McCance & Huether, 2019). Hyperplasia can occur normally and play a beneficial role in the healing and reproductive processes; however, it can also cause certain conditions like Cushing’s disease, for example. Cushing’s disease is characterized by increased cortisol production usually due to a benign tumor called an adenoma (McCance & Huether, 2019). Cushing’s disease is caused by either ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism or ACTH-independent hypercortisolism. The main difference between the two is that ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism is more common and stems from the pituitary making too much ACTH or corticotropin, while ACTH-independent hypercortisolism results from cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands (McCance & Huether, 2019).
Requirements: 150-200 words total
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