Read the following document: Poem About Civil War Nurses, 1866 . Write a reflection answering the following question? What do you think this poem tells us about the role of wo
history writing question
Read the following document: Poem About Civil War Nurses, 1866 .
Write a reflection answering the following question? What do you think this poem tells us about the role of women during the Civil War? How do you think women viewed the war? Why? Use complete sentences and be detailed.
Your reflection should be between 600 – 750 words.
– Check spelling and grammar.
– Separate paragraphs.
– Include at least 2 quotes from the text.
Requirements: 600-750 words
THE ROAD TO CIVIL WARHIST 11 US History to 1877Spring 2022Dr. Rebecca Simon
Agenda??Part I: Cracks Between the North and South?Uneasy Peace?Wilmot?s Proviso?Popular Sovereignty?Compromise of 1850?Balance of Power?The Kansas-Nebraska Act??Border Ruffians??Kanas Territory Legislation?Lawrence, Kansas?Pottawatomie Creek Massacre?Preston Brooks vs. Charles Sumner??Part II: The Road to Civil War?Dred Scott vs. Sandford?The Dred Scott Decision?Lincoln-Douglas Debates?John Brown and Harper?s Ferry?The Election of 1860: Democrats?The Election of 1860: Republicans?Election of 1860: Outcome ?Secession ?Fort Sumter?Two New Presidents?The Battle of Fort Sumter
PART I: CRACKS BETWEEN THE NORTH AND SOUTH
Uneasy Peace??California is official US territory??Land from Mexico further divides North and South??Northern Whigs??Southern Democrats??Abolitionists fear attempts to plant cotton/spread slavery into new territories??Slaveholders fear they would lose power in Congress without slavery in new territory
Wilmot?s Proviso??David Wilmot: Pennsylvania representative??Not opposed to slavery, but VERY anti spread of slavery to former Mexican lands??August 8, 1846: introduces legislation saying ?neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall ever exist? in lands won from Mexican-American War??Why? Felt President Polk was dominated by Southern agendas aka willing to fight for southern territory??Wilmot wanted CA to a place for white Pennsylvanians to work without competing against slave labor ??Wilmot?s Proviso passes in House, fails in Senate
Popular Sovereignty??Southern lawmakers: Why should Congress decide slave status in new states???Missouri Compromise (from Henry Clay): banned slavery in Louisiana territory north of 30/36 parallel since 1820s??Popular Sovereignty: let the people in the territories decide whether or not to have slavery ?but how? (Intended to avoid slavery problem)??President Zachary Taylor: Wins 1848 election ?ignores issue of slavery completely??Stephen Douglas: Illinois Senator who supports popular sovereignty ?very loud about itPresident Zachary TaylorStephen Douglas
Compromise of 1850??Henry Clay wants to put forth another compromise between slave/free states but too sick ??July 9, 1850: President Taylor dies of food poisoning??President Millard Filmore: Wants to make compromise law??Clay?s Compromise, aka Compromise of 1850:?CA enters into Union at 16thFREE state?No restrictions on slavery in New Mexico or Utah?Texas loses New Mexico boundary claim but gets $10 million?Slavery continues in DC but slave trade banned?Fugitive Slave Law passes: northerners MUST return runaway slaves to owners
Balance of Power??Balance of power desperate in Senate??A new free state needs to be matched by a new slave state to maintain balance of power?Missouri: slave state?Maine: free state??Many territories had long already made decisions on slavery??Southerners: slavery must be allowed in all territories??Northerners: new territories should not have slavery
The Kansas-Nebraska Act1854??Most significant event leading up to Civil War??Early 1850s: settlers and entrepreneurs start moving into Nebraska region ?north of 36/30 parallel ??Stephen Douglas wants to admit Nebraska into Union along with a new slave state: Kansas (goal ?build a new transcontinental railroad to Chicago)??Kansas-Nebraska Act allows each territory to decide on slavery based on popular sovereignty??Slavery in Kansas would violate Missouri Compromise
Kansas-Nebraska Act Continued??BUT territory north of 36/30 parallel now open to popular sovereignty, so possibly slavery based on popular votes??Splits Whig party ?all Northerners against it, all Southerners pro??Southern Whigs move into Democratic Party??Northern Whigs create new anti-slavery Republican Party??Democratic Party is only party that still crosses both North and South??Northerners violate Fugitive Slave Law in retaliation
?Border Ruffians???Nebraska outlaws slavery ?cotton doesn?t grow well anyways??Kansas has similar climate to Missouri and Missouri wants it to be a slave state??Fall 1854: Senator David Atchinsonof MO leads 1,700 men into Kansas to vote pro-slavery??Border Ruffians: Atchinson?smen who threaten to shoot, burn, and hang anyone opposed to slavery??Border Ruffians? votes proved fraudulent
Kansas Territory Legislation ??5,000 from MO illegally vote in Kansas territorial election ??Fraudulent election = 36 pro-slavery delegates, 3 anti-slavery delegates??Slave code passed: fines/imprisonment for speaking out against slavery; death penalty to anyone helping slaves to revolt or escape; legalized ?border ruffian? by not requiring voters to be Kansas residents??Majority of actual Kansas residents against slavery??Free Soilers: Kansas residents who draw up their own free state constitution and elect different governor and state legislature to be located in Topeka??Result: two state governments
Lawrence, Kansas??Named after Amos Lawrence, New England financier who gave aid to anti-slavery farmers and settlers??Center of anti-slavery movement in Kansas ??Abolitionists send boxes of Sharps rifles (?Beecher?s Bibles?, named after anti-slavery preacher named Henry Ward Beecher)??1856: President Franklin Lloyd Pierce refuses to get involved in Kansas issue??Spring 1856: Judge Samuel Lecomptedemands Free Soil government be indicted for treason ??May 21, 1856: 800 pro-slavery men go to Lawrence to arrest members of free government; destroy 2 newspaper offices; burn homes and shops; destroy Free State Hotel ??Republicans try to pass bills to enter Kansas as a free state, Democrats try to pass bills to enter Kansas as slave state
Pottawatomie Creek Massacre??John Brown: Lawrence resident who wants revenge ?angry that Lawrence residents did not fight back??Gains followers to create attack against Border Ruffians ??fight fire with fire???May 24, 1856: Leads 7 others (calls selves Army of the North) to pro-slavery town Pottawatomie Creek, break into homes, and attacked with swords??Brown kills 5 people??Slavers furious ?THEY never killed anyone!??Border Ruffians burn Brown homesteads; Brown escapes to the North ??Guerilla warfare starts in Kansas??End of 1856: 200 people shot in cold blood, property damage millions of dollars, federal troops sent in but not enough
Preston Brooks vs. Charles Sumner??Senator Charles Sumner: Massachusetts rep, Abolitionist ??Calls Border Ruffians ?murderous robbers from Missouri? ??hirelings, picked from the drunken spew and vomit of an uneasy civilization??Rep. Preston Brooks of South Carolina feels Sumner goes too far after he verbally attacks South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler (Brooks’ cousin)??Brooks goes into Sumner?s office, says ?You?ve libeled by state and slandered my white-haired relative? and beats him with a cane??House votes to expel Brooks but does not pass in the Senate??Brooks fined $300, resigns ??South Carolina holds events in his honor??Sumner stays away from Senate for years to recover, voters reelect him and keep his seat empty as a ?reminder of southern brutality?
PART II: THE ROAD TO CIVIL WAR
Dred Scott vs. Sandford1857??What did the Constitution actually say about slavery decisions in the states???Dred Scott vs. Sandford (1857) would answer this question??Dred Scott: slave of army surgeon, John Emerson??1846: Sues for freedom when he is living in Missouri territory??Reason: had lived for 2 years in a free state (Illinois) before going to Missouri after Missouri Compromise had been passed??Takes 11 years for case to reach Supreme Court??Proves to put questions re: slave citizenship at stake
The Dred Scott Decision??Verdict is shocking??Living in Illinois for 2 years did not make him free in Missouri??Scott excluded from US citizenship as a black man so he technically could not even sue??Congress does not have the right to ban slavery in any territory ?violation of 5thAmendment (bans denying property rights)??Missouri Compromise unconstitutional ??North does not accept this because Supreme Court is majority Southern Democrat; accepted in the South??Total division
Lincoln-Douglas Debates??1858: Two Illinois politicians rise to prominence ?Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas (Douglas already known)??August 21 ?October 15, 1858: series of debates between Lincoln and Douglas to win Senate seat??People came from all over to watch debates ?held in 7 places throughout Illinois ??Attracted tens of thousands of voters??Douglas still pro-popular sovereignty ?right of citizens to choose slavery in their own states/territories ??Lincoln says this violates Dred Scott decision ?citizens do not have that power
Lincoln-Douglas Debates Continued??Freeport Doctrine: Douglas declares that Supreme Court ruling is not more important that citizen action; Supreme Court could not stop people from making their own slavery decisions??Southern Democrats very angered by Freeport Doctrine??Lincoln?s major argument: ?A house divided could not stand.???Douglas: ?[Founders] left each state perfectly free to do as it pleased on the subject.???Lincoln: Blacks entitled to rights stated in Declaration of Independence??Douglas: Founders did not intend inclusion for Blacks??Neither win popular election but Democrats win majority of districts so Douglas remains senator??Lincoln defeated, but is now very popular
John Brown and Harper?s Ferry??October 16, 1859: John Brown leads army of 18 men to Harper?s Ferry, VA??Plan: Start a major slave rebellion in South, capture arms/ammunition, arm slaves, continue south ??Plan is a failure from the start ?no real supplies, no escape route??BUT deepens divide between North and South??Brown takes federal complex with an armory, arsenal, and engine house??Sends patrol to contact slaves, collect hostages
Harper?s Ferry Continued??Slaved do not support Brown??Locals attack Brown and army ?2 townspeople killed, 8 of Brown?s men killed??Lieutenant Colonel Robert E. Lee arrests Brown and is tried for treason??December 2, 1859: Hanged??Consequences:?North supported raid?North turns Brown into celebrated martyr?South outraged at North?Southern politicians blame Republican Party?Lincoln accused of supporting Brown
The Election of 1860:Democrats??April 1860: Democrats meet in SC to choose their presidential candidate??Northern Democrats support Stephen Douglas??Southern Democrats see Douglas as traitor because he supports popular sovereignty ?territories allowed to choose NOT to have slavery!??Southern Democrats do not choose candidate; Northern Democrats choose Stephen Douglas??Southern Democrats nominate John C. Breckenridge for VPStephen DouglasJohn C Breckenridge
The Election of 1860:Republicans??May, 1860: Meet in Chicago??Need a candidate supported by the North and could win Electoral College (NJ, IL, IN, PA ?swing states)??Abraham Lincoln selected as candidate??Lincoln: symbol of frontier, hard work, was self-made, debates made him very popular
Election of 1860: Outcome??Constitutional Union Party: party created by older politicians; nominate John Bell (TN, wealthy slaveholder) ?meant to be a moderate party; no stand on slavery at all ??4 candidates: Douglas, Lincoln, Breckenridge, Bell??Lincoln wins 40% popular vote but 180 Electoral College vote so he wins
Secession ??South refuses to accept Lincoln?s win??South Carolina calls for convention to secede from Union ??Confederacy official formed in the South??December 20, 1860: South Carolina votes to secede from Union (169 ?0)??February 1, 1861: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas have all seceded from Union ??February 4, 1861: 4 delegates from each state meet in Montgomery, AL and create the Confederate States of America??Jefferson Davis elected president of Confederate States of America
Secession Continued??Senator John Jordon Crittenden proposes Amendment to extend 36/30 parallel to Pacific ?Republicans do not support it??Corwin Amendment: Written by Senator William H. Seward of NY, put into House by Rep Thomas Corwin of OH?No amendment can be written that would give Congress power to interfere with any states? institutions?Supported by Lincoln??March 2, 1861: Congress passes Corwin Amendment BUT does not get ? approval of state legislatures so it is not ratified (mostly because Southern states had already seceded)
Fort Sumter??December 20, 1860: South Carolina secedes from Union??December 25, 1860: 68 federal troops in Charleston go to Fort Sumter, island off Charleston Harbor??North says Fort Sumter is property of United States government ??South Carolina says it is property of Confederacy??Major Robert Anderson: Commander at Fort Sumter, former slave owner but loyal to the Union ??In the meantime, Lincoln?s presidency had been delayed and James Buchanan is acting president until his inauguration
Two New Presidents??President James Buchanan sends 200 soldiers/supplies to Anderson on a ship called Star of the West (under threat by 6,000 SC militia)??Star of the West attacked by SC militia??February 1861: Jefferson Davis inaugurated as President of the Confederate States of America in Montgomery, AL??March 4, 1861: Lincoln official inaugurated as President of the United States in DC??Lincoln pressured to take action on Fort Sumter and reunite States??Davis tries negotiating to transfer Fort Sumter to SC but fails
The Battle of Fort Sumter: The Civil War Begins??Fort Sumter has no supplies but attacking the fort would be Northern aggression and might make VA and NC secede to South??April 6, 1861: Lincoln tells SC he is sending supplies to Fort Sumter but no weapons/troops??Davis does not want to accept Lincoln?s supplies but attacking would be Southern aggression ??Davis orders Anderson to surrender Fort Sumter but Anderson refuses??4:30 AM, April 12, 1861: Confederate General Pierre Gustave T. Beauregard open fires on Fort Sumter??Confederate soldiers shoot over 3,000 shells at fort over 3 days??Anderson surrenders??Civil War begins
THE CIVIL WARUS History to 1877Spring 2022Dr. Rebecca Simon
Agenda??Book/Film Recs??North vs. South Advantages??Part 1: The Union?Union Armies?Wartime Politics?Emancipation?Emancipation Proclamation?African American Soldiers?Women and the War??Part 2: The South?Confederate Government?Money?Confederate Army?Economic Effects of the Civil War?Women in the War??Part III: Strategy and Diplomacy?Northern Commanders?Southern Commanders?Europe?King Cotton Diplomacy?Trent Affair??Part IV: Civil War Battles?Weaponry?Railroad and Telegraph?Battle of Bull Run?New Orleans?Battle of Shiloh?General McClellan?Battle of Antietam?Northern Stagnation?Battle of Vicksburg?Battle of Gettysburg?The Final Stage?The Capture of Atlanta?Appomattox Court House?Map of Civil War Battles
Book/Film Recs Part Ihttps://www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/start-reading-about-civil-war??Books?The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara?My Names is Mary Sutter by Robin Oliveira?Neverhomeby Laird Hunt?North and South by John Jakes (first in trilogy)?The Widow of the South by Robert Hicks?Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era by James M. McPherson ?A Savage War: A Military History of the Civil War by Murray and Hsieh?Women at the Front: Hospital Workers in the Civil War by Jane Schultz??Films?Glory?Cold Mountain ?Lincoln?Gone with the Wind?North and South?Ken Burns: The Civil War [PBS]
North vs. South Advantages??War begins after Battle of Fort Sumter, April 14, 1861??Union Advantages?Population double the South?Advanced industrial system?Able to manufacture all war materials?Better transportation system??Southern Advantages?Most of the war fought in the South?Had local support?Knew the terrain?Believed British and French would help because of cotton trade
PART I: THE UNION
Union Armies??2 million men serve in Union army??Most of army was made up of volunteers??July 1861: Congress authorizes enlisting 500,000 men for 3-year terms??March 1863: Congress passes national draft law because of declining volunteers??Men could pay $300 or have someone serve in their place to get out of the war??Several uprising against the draft (known as Draft Riots) ?July 1863: 4-day riot in New York City after conscriptions released
Wartime Politics??Lincoln?s major challenge was popular opposition to the war, especially in Democratic Party??People feared Republican nationalism was breaking states? rights??Lincoln orders war dissenters to be arrested??1862: Lincoln orders all people who are against enlistments subject to martial law??13,000 people arrested throughout the war??Lincoln?s administration issue pro-war pamphlets, posters, speeches, and songs to gain support??Mathew Brady: renowned photographer who organized a corps of photographers to document the war??1864: Republican Party nominates Lincoln for second term, Democratic Party nominates George B McClellan (former Union general) ?Lincoln wins by a landslide (212 electoral college votes to 21)
Emancipation??Disagreements in Union Congress about slavery??Radicals (led by Thaddeus Stevens) want to abolish slavery immediately??Conservatives want a slower/gradual end to slavery (initial support from Lincoln)??Confiscation Act: all slaves used for insurrectionary purposes would be freed??1862: Slavery abolished in Washington??1862: Confiscation Act renewed and includes allowing Lincoln to employ African Americans (including free slaves) to serve in Union Army
Emancipation Proclamation??First major victory for Union at Battle of Antietam ??September 22, 1862: Lincoln announces intention to use war powers to make executive order to free slaves??January 1, 1863: Formerly signs Emancipation Proclamation ?frees slaves in all areas of Confederacy except those under Union control (Tennessee, W Virginia, southern Louisiana) ??Did not apply to border states because they technically did not secede from Union??Emancipation was initially limited until more federal armies occupied the South??Slaves taken from plantations and put to work to build defenses??Slaves would escape across Northern lines ?treated as ?contraband? but could not be returned??End of war: slavery abolished in Union slave states Maryland and Missouri and three Confederate states occupied by Union (Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana)??1865: Congress approves and ratifies 13thAmendment abolishing slavery in United States
African American Soldiers??186,000 emancipated African Americans served as soldiers, sailors, laborers for Union ??Blacks initially excluded from military??Black regiments slowly start to form??Black enlistment increases after Emancipation Proclamation ??Fifty-Fourth Massachusetts Infantry: most famous Black regiment commanded by white commander Robert Gould Shaw ?Shaw and 50% die in battle near Charleston, SC (1863)??Most black soldiers had menial tasks like digging trenches??Black mortality rate higher than whites due to disease from hard work in unsanitary conditions??Paid 30% less than white soldiers until Congress changed law in 1864??Captured black soldiers in South either returned to masters or executed
Women and the War??Women took work positions vacated by men ?teachers, retail clerks, office workers, mill/factory workers??Women enter nursing??US Sanitary Commission: Organized by Dorothy Dix mobilized many female nurses to serve in field hospitals??End of war: women dominated nurses??1900: Nursing is now a female profession??Female nurses resisted by male doctors ?considered women too weak for medical work and inappropriate to care for unfamiliar men; Commission argues that nursing also has traditional female roles
PART II: THE SOUTH
Confederate Government??Constitution identical to Union except acknowledges sovereignty of individual states, sanctions slavery, makes abolition nearly impossible ??President: Jefferson Davis of Mississippi??Vice President: Alexander H. Stephens of Georgia??Davis was overall unsuccessful president; great administrator, but poor leader??No political parties but disagreements??Some white southerners against secession and war??White ?backcountry? would not acknowledge Confederate government or serve in Southern army; some worked/fought for Union
Money??Financing war proved to be impossible??National revenue system created to raise money (basically higher taxes)??Liquid assets almost nonexistent, gold only work $1 million??1863: Confederate Congress creates income tax??Taxes unsuccessful ?only 1% of government?s income??War bonds issued but people do not buy them??Tried to borrow money from Europe but unsuccessful ??Had to pay for war through paper currency ?least stable??1864: Had issued $1.5 billion in paper money??No uniform currency: national government, states, cities all issued their own money??Prices rise 9,000% due to inflation (NOT A TYPO!)
Confederate Army??Initially raised army by volunteers??1862: Enacted conscription ?all white males between 18 ?35 years old had to join military for 3 years??White men with 20+ slaves could be exempt ??Rich man?s war, but a poor man?s fight.???1862: 500,000 men were in Confederate military, but declines after 1862??1864: Starts drafted men as young as 17 and as old as 50, conscripts 300,000 slaves ??1864 ?1865: 100,000 desertions
Economic Effects of Civil War??Southern agricultural production declines 30%??Almost all major battles fought in Confederacy??Fighting destroys Southern railroads??Most farmland and successful plantations ruined by Union troops??1862: North blockades southern ports??Massive shortages of ALL supplies??Not enough food all around ?led to food riots
Women in the War??Agricultural production responsibilities go to women??Major plantation wives start managing large slave workforces??Farmers? wives plow fields and harvest crops??Many women work as schoolteachers or government agencies??Many women become nurses in hospitals and various facilities??Post-war: more women than men; unmarried/widowed women had to find work; necessity expanded roles for women
PART III: STRATEGY AND DIPLOMACY
Northern Commanders??Lincoln most important Union commander ?numbers and resources on his side??General Winfield Scott made Chief of Staff for war but he retires Nov. 1, 1861??George B. McClellan becomes Chief of Staff but is terrible at strategy so returns to war March 1862??General Henry W. Halleck becomes Chief of Staff but bad strategist??March 1864: Ulysses S. Grant given command of war effort and succeeds
Southern Commanders??Davis is a professional soldier but does not create effective command system??1862: Robert E. Lee appointed as military advisor but leaves to command forces; Davis commands on his own for 2 years ??February 1864: General Braxton Bragg named military advisor but only good on technical things??February 1865: Confederacy names Lee as general in chief
Europe??England and France sympathetic to Confederacy because of cotton imports??Wanted to weaken US because it?s a major commercial rival ??Admired aristocratic social order in South??France would not officially take sides unless British did first??English government did not want to act because many were pro-Union
King Cotton Diplomacy??South tries to convince English that Southern cotton was necessary for British and French textile industries??England already had surplus of raw cotton and other goods so they were okay with temporary loss of access to American goods??England and France import cotton from Egypt and India??English general population supported the North??No European nation wanted to get involved unless it looked like Confederacy would win??Union angry at lack of European support
Trent Affair??Confederate diplomats, James M. Mason and John Slidell, sneak to Cuba and board British ship, the Trent, for England??American ship, San Jacinto, waiting in Cuban waters commanded by Charles Wilkes??Wilkes stops Trent, arrests diplomats, takes them to Boston ?without permission!??Britain demands release of prisoners, reparations, and an apology??Lincoln stalls negotiations but eventually releases them with an apology
PART IV: CIVIL WAR BATTLES
Book/Film Recs Part IIwww.civilwarmonitor.com??Books?Battle Cry of Freedom by James McPherson?The Civil War: A Narrative by Shelby Foote?The Personal Memoirs of Ulysses S. Grant by Ulysses S. Grant?Hospital Sketches by Louisa May Alcott?Forged in Battle: The Civil War Alliance of Black Soldiers and White Officers by Joseph T. Glatthaar?March by Geraldine Brookes?Gettysburg by Stephen W. Sears?The Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane??Films?Gettysburg [rent]?The Red Badge of Courage [Hulu]?Glory [Hulu/Starz/Amazon Prime]?Ride with the Devil [rent]?The Birth of a Nation (1915) [YouTube]?The Free State of Jones [Netflix, rent]?Gone With the Wind [HBO Max, rent]
Weaponry??New tech changed the nature of combat??Civil War referred to as ?first modern war? and ?first total war???1835: Samuel Colt patents repeating pistol (revolver)??1860: Oliver Winchester introduces repeated rifle ??Cannons and artillery improved thanks to iron/steel industry??Fighting now = slaughter; soldiers learn to stay low to the ground
Railroad and Telegraph??Railroad?Ability to transport huge number of soldiers essential ?Allows for mass transportation of supplies?Limited mobility ?fighting had to take place away from railroad tracks??Telegraph?US Military Telegraph Corp (Thomas Scott and Andrew Carnegie) trains 1,200 operators?Telegraph wires increase and strung over longer distances?North and South armies tap telegraphs to spy on each other
The Battle of Bull RunJuly 21, 1861??First major battle in VA??Union army of 30,000 commanded by General Irvin McDowell in DC; Southern army in Manassas under General PGT Beauregard??Union leaders believe they?ll defeat Southerners; war will end quickly??First Battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861: ?McDowell almost scatters Confederate forces but South counterattacks; Union panics and break ranks?McDowell forced to order retreat; Confederates also too disorganized to go after them?Major loss to Union
New OrleansApril 25, 1862??Union squadron led by David G. Farragut gathers in Gulf of Mexico and destroys Confederate forts ??Union soldiers sail up Mississippi to New Orleans??New Orleans totally defenseless because Confederates expected attack from the north??April 25, 1862: New Orleans surrenders; first major Union victory
Battle of Shiloh (TN)April 6 ?7, 1862??General Ulysses S. Grant leads 40,000 soldiers along Tennessee River to capture railroads important to Confederacy??Meets Confederate force of 40,000 commanded by Albert Sidney Johnston and Beauregard??Johnston wounded; Grant driven back to the river??Grant gets 25,000 more troops, moves forward, forces Beauregard to withdraw??Northern forces occupy Corinth, Mississippi ?main hub of several Confederate railroads
General McClellan1862??George B. McClellan directs Union operations; most controversial general in the war; great trainer, bad at getting troops in battle??McClellan trains army of 150,000 men near DC (winter 1861 ?62)??Launches spring campaign to capture Richmond, VA but chooses roundabout route down the Potomac River??100,000 troops go down Potomac; 30,000 stay behind to protect DC; 20,000 plan to join McClellan??Confederate General Thomas J. ?Stonewall? Jackson leads army through Shenandoah Valley??May 4 ?June 9, 1862: Jackson defeats two separate Union forces; never caught by McClellan
Battle of AntietamSeptember 17, 1862??Known as the bloodiest battle of the Civil War??McClellan gets a copy of Lee?s orders plan to attack Harper?s Ferry??McClellan delays attack and waits for Confederate army to assemble at Antietam Creek??September 17: McClellan?s 87,000-man army attacks Lee?s force of 50,000??6,000 soldiers die; 17,000 wounded??Lee allowed to retreat??Technically a Union victory, but major mistakes by McClellan for not attacking before Antietam; Lincoln removes him from command
Northern Stagnation??Union makes very little progress despite manpower and technology??No massive victory??Northerners blame stalemate on bad Union generals??Reality: this is not a war where winning/losing battles matter??Outcome depends on destroying resources??North blockades South; food becomes scarce
Battle of Vicksburg, Mississippi1863??Union victories in the west start to turn war in their favor??Grant decides to take major southern stronghold, Vicksburg??Takes soldiers and attacks Vicksburg from the south??6-week long sieges ravages city??July 4, 1863: Vicksburg surrenders??Union force takes Port Hudson, Louisiana at same time??Union army now has control of Mississippi River
Battle of Gettysburg, PennsylvaniaJuly 1 ?3, 1863??Most celebrated battle of Civil War??June 1863: Lee leads Confederate army from Shenandoah Valley to Gettysburg??Union Army of the Potomac, commanded by George C. Meade, heads north to Gettysburg; they meet July 1??Lee attacks even though they?re outnumbered by 75,000 ?90,000 ??July 1: Lee fails to assault Union army on Cemetery Ridge??July 2: Lee orders 15,000 Confederate soldiers to march a mile across open country while under attack of Union fire; 5,000 make it up the ridge (Pickett?s Charge)??July 4: Lee withdraws ??Gettysburg officially turns the war in Union?s favor??Confederate armies will never have any major victories again
The Final Stage1864 ?1865 ??1864: Ulysses S. Grant general in chief of Union armies??Grant plans 2 offensives:?Army of the Potomac would advance toward Richmond, VA and force Lee into decisive battle?Western army in Georgia under General William Tecumseh Sherman would advance east toward Atlanta and destroy last Confederate force??Northern campaign begins when 115,000 men of Army of Potomac goes after Lee?s 75,000-men army??Grant pushed back by Lee but meets Lee against in five-day Battle of Spotsylvania Court House; 12,000 Union troops die, many Confederates dead or wounded??Campaign lasts a month; Grant loses 55,000 men; Lee loses 31,000 men??Richmond still standing
The Capture of Atlanta??Sherman?s forces 90,000 against Confederate?s 60,000??Armies fight battle at Kennesaw Mountain (north of Atlanta); Confederate victory??Union advances to Atlanta; Confederate army gets new General ?John B. Hood??September 2, 1864: Sherman successfully takes Atlanta
Appomattox Court House, VirginiaApril 9, 1865??April 1865: Grant?s army captures major railroad in VA; Richmond defenseless??Lee and 25,000 Confederate soldiers have no way to protect VA??Lee arranges to meet Grant at Appomattox Court House??Lee officially surrenders the last of his forces??April 18, 1865: Confederate army under Johnston in NC officially surrenders
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