Explain why it is important to determine whether or not there is an association between an exposure and the occurrence of a disease.
Please read carefully and answer the following questions:
1. Indicate, among the options mentioned below, which is the correct one to explain why it is important to determine whether or not there is an association between an exposure and the occurrence of a disease.
a. To describe the natural history of a disease.
b. To identify exposures that may be possible risk factors or causal factors for an effect.
c. To estimate if the effect can be disseminated in the population.
2. Ecological studies are epidemiological study designs that are characterized by:
a. Incorporate ecological variables as possible determinants of the diseases that affect people in order to select which of them act as the most important risk factors.
b. They do not allow calculating the incidence of a disease or health problem in the population.
c. Define any variable that can be considered as a risk factor, with ecological criteria.
d. Allow the calculation of the relative risk of a disease occurring in a group affected by ecological factors with respect to another group in which these ecological factors are not important.
and. Use average values of an exposure and the frequency of a disease in population groups.
f. None of the above.
3. The ecological fallacy consists of (check the option or options that are correct):
a. Not considering the ecological context among the determinants of the health condition of populations.
b. Do not assign importance to the environmental situation of the individual as the main cause of disease.
c. Consider that the ecological situation in which individuals find themselves is the main determinant of their state of health.
d. Assign to individuals characteristics of the group to which they belong.
and. Consider that the ecological environment in which a population group is found and the disease it suffers are not associated.
f. None of the above.
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