Determine how you would leverage this model in your work environment (or a past or future work environment).? ??determine which phase is the most important. Determine three significa
see attached files to answer the next two questions
determine how you would leverage this model in your work environment (or a past or future work environment).
determine which phase is the most important. Determine three significant challenges to implementing this phase and how those challenges could be overcome. Provide specific examples to support your response.
Behavioral Strategies and Observable Behaviors
Given a dominant paradigm, its related mental models, and the mindsets supporting the paradigm and
mental models, individuals, groups, and entire school systems begin to devise strategies for how to
behave within the dominant paradigms and about how to implement effectively their chosen mental
models. These strategies are devised to help educators and their school systems succeed within the
dominant paradigm by deciding about how they should work, when they should work, with whom they
should collaborate to do the work, and so on. These strategies, when implemented, create observable
As individuals, groups, and entire school systems implement their behavioral strategies observable
behaviors are manifested. Ideally, these behaviors will be clearly and unequivocally aligned with the
dominant paradigm and mental models that govern the profession of education. These behaviors, when
manifested effectively, move school systems toward their paradigm-driven visions.
Observable behaviors can be seen, heard, interpreted, and evaluated by others. If the observed
behaviors are congruent with the four dominant paradigms and related mental models and with
mindsets that control the education profession and school systems, then the people manifesting the
observable behaviors are evaluated positively and rewarded. If their observed behaviors are not aligned
with the controlling paradigm, mental models, and mindsets, then these people are punished or
ignored; e.g., sometimes subtly as when an article is rejected for publication and sometimes in an
embarrassingly obvious ways like when a person is publicly denied an opportunity to serve on a
Kuhn (1962) used the term “paradigm” to characterize significant changes in the hard sciences of his
time. He argued that scientific advancement is not evolutionary; rather, he believed scientific
advancement is a relatively peaceful journey punctuated by aggressive intellectual revolutions that
replace one world view with another (this view is also supported by Tushman, Newman, & Romanelli,
1986). In other words, a paradigm shift is a revolutionary change from one way of thinking (as
embedded in paradigms and mental models), believing (as reflected in mindsets) and doing (as reflected
in behavioral strategies and observable behaviors) to another way. It is a revolution or disruptive
transformation and it just does not happen on its own; rather, in the field of education it is being driven
by frame-breaking revolutionaries with a powerful and compelling vision for creating and sustaining a
new future for America’s school systems who are creating and nurturing powerful coalitions for
transformational change. 1 However, as I have argued, creating a paradigm shift is no easy feat and
doing so is analogous to trying to convince an entire religious community to shift to a new religion.
Paradigm Shifting Strategy
Let us say that we really want to create a true paradigm shift for the entire field of education. How
would we do that? I believe that the initial target of paradigm-shifting efforts must be the mindsets (or
attitudes) of educators. Our goal should be to motivate educators to open their minds to new
possibilities, to increase the malleability of their mindsets, and to introduce new ways of thinking,
believing, and doing. A process that might help to do that is visually depicted in Figure 3 and described
Phase 1: Prepare
Create simple, concrete, powerful, and compelling language to describe the four new paradigms and
their mental models. Create language that communicates to the heart and the head. Beware of the
curse of knowledge, as described earlier.
Construct descriptions of the four new paradigms using language that satisfies the following
communication principles (Heath & Heath, 2007):
Principle 1: Simplicity—language that is devoid of abstract terms and specialized jargon;
Principle 2: Unexpectedness—examples that take people by surprise;
Principle 3: Concreteness—examples and ideas that are down-to-earth and easy to understand;
Principle 4: Credibility—information that is backed by research or endorsed by those who have already
implemented the ideas;
Principle 5: Emotions—information presented in ways that appeals to peoples’ emotions and motivates
them to care about the ideas; and,
Principle 6: Stories—information shaped into the form of stories about the successful use of the ideas.
Design and test mental models that support the four new paradigms; e.g., since the instructional
paradigm advocated in this article focuses on customized, personalized learning experiences, design and
test ways to do this and ways to manage that process (e.g., design or adopt a learning management
Design the new mental models so they are cost-effective, simple to use, and do not make educators’
work lives harder.
Phase 2: Educate
Phase 1 focuses on preparing for Phase 2. The ultimate outcome of Phase 2 is to help educators expand
their mindsets. Mindset expansion is the absolute starting point for paradigm-change because before
shifting to a new paradigm educators first need to be “willing” to consider the new paradigm and its
supporting mental models. Being “willing” is a function of a mindset.
Provide educators with in-service opportunities to learn about the new paradigms and their related
Demonstrate the effectiveness of the new mental models.
Provide access to other educators who are effectively using the new paradigms and their mental
Design and deliver educational activities that help educators learn about the philosophy, theories,
concepts, principles, and research underpinning the new paradigms and their mental models.
Phase 3: Adopt
Influence carefully selected school systems with the capacity to engage in transformational change to
adopt the new paradigms and their mental models on a small-scale (see Christensen, 2003; Christensen,
Johnson, & Horn, 2008). Design the implementation of these small-scale initiatives so they do not
compete with the dominant paradigm (see Christensen, Johnson & Horn, 2008) for an explanation of
why this non-compete principle is important). Design these initiatives so they will be successful.
Phase 4: Expand
Gradually expand the successful initiatives created for Phases 1 and 2 to include more programs within
each school systems with the goal of achieving a tipping point for the initiatives adopted in #9 so that
they will displace the old paradigms and their mental models.
Phase 5: Tip
Replicate the above process in an increasing number of school systems. Use educators from
transformed school districts as emissaries and advocates of the new paradigm and its mental models.
This action employs Gardner’s (2004) resonance lever.
Phase 6: Shift
Always keep in mind that the paradigm-shifting goal is to reach a tipping point in the field of education
(about 25% of all school systems) that will then trigger a cascade of school systems shifting rapidly to the
new paradigms, which will be perceived as a sudden and dramatic revolution in thinking, believing, and
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