In this discussion We’ll look at the end of the colonial era with Mexico's Wars for Independence, and a few of the ideologies underpinning the new social order.
Task: Read these excerpts from the Constitution of 1812, promulgated by the Cortes de Cádiz. (ATTACHED BELOW) In your post, consider how this document embodies liberal ideals. How was this different from the colonial monarchy?
Also respond to classmates responses below:
Classmate response 1
This excerpt represents liberal ideas because it advocates for heightened autonomy from the Crown and outlines individual rights including fair representation of the people in government and freedom for Spaniards to express political beliefs. As discussed in the lecture, the Constitution of 1812 represented Hispanic liberalism because it consisted of concepts such as popular sovereignty, representative government, and the division of powers. To add, the system of government outlined in the document differentiated from the colonial monarchy because it served to limit the power of the King throughout the Spanish mainland and colonies. For instance, the document checked the King’s power because it prevented his ability to dissolve the Cortes or conduct foreign policy without the Cortes’ consent. Overall, the Constitution of 1812 embodied liberal ideas because it both specified personal liberties for those defined as Spanish citizens and held the King at a standard such that he was not above the law.
Classmate response 2
The document expresses liberal ideas because it shows the hispanic liberalism ideals that were discussed in the lecture. It gives independence to the nation and also transforms it into a popular sovereignty while keeping the religious monarchy. The monarchy and the system of rulers follows the ideas of centralist liberalism which called for autonomy while still having a strong central power. It also follows the ideas of nativism with the new "American" identity as it recognizes citizenship to all those born on the land which differs from the sistema de castas. The new constitution ensured prevention methods to oppression as seen with the elections of deputies to the cortes, these representatives were picked by the people of the area and there was one for "every seventy thousand souls of populations", emphasizing how people had more say in the new government. All of these aspects differ from the colonial monarchy because the power is not all in the hands of the Spanish who used their previous power to their advantage while denying the indigenous people of their rights and abusing them for labor without anyone checking their power.
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