Describe two ways the foods could have become contaminated c Name two ways contamination could have been avoided
Answer the questions below as completely and as thoroughly as possible and where appropriate include a specific example to illustrate. Answer the questions in essay form (not as an outline or bullets) using complete sentences. You may use a diagram or table to supplement your answers, but a diagram or table alone without appropriate discussion will not be adequate for full credit. Reminder: All answers are to written in your own words and include complete and accurate citations for the sources you used or that support your answer. No points will be earned for answers that do not include complete and accurate citations for the sources of information used to answer the question or that support your answer. 8. (3 points) Genes A, B, and C are three structural genes of an operon and fall in that order within the operon. A mutation occurs in Gene A that halts transcription early in the gene. What effect will this have on the levels of proteins produced by Genes A, B, and C? Explain why? 9. (4 points) Name and briefly describe four mechanisms by which antibiotic susceptible bacteria can acquire genes resistant to antibiotics. 10. (3 points) What is an endospore? Describe its structure and function for a bacterial cell. Name at least two infections transmitted to humans by bacterial endospores and the bacteria (genus and species names) that cause them. 11. (3 points) List three different mechanisms by which antibiotics are effective against bacterial infections and give an example of an antibiotic for each of the mechanisms. 12. (3 points) Gram stain investigation: copy your answers to the Gram stain investigation lab. a. What were your results? Name the bacteria and appearance after staining. b. Describe two ways the food(s) could have become contaminated. c. Name two ways contamination could have been avoided. d. Did you find any microorganism known not to cause food poisoning? What? e. In what ways does Gram staining aide in the identification of unknown bacteria? f. If you forgot to add the iodine, would the Gram-positive bacteria still be purple at the end of the staining procedure? Explain why or why not. 13. (2 points) Control slides are missing in The Gram Stain Investigation. What are they and what is their importance in the straining procedure?
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